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Galatia

Galatia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
An ancient region in central Asia Minor, settled by invading Gauls (the Galatians) in the 3rd century bc. It later became a protectorate of Rome and then (with some further territories) a province of ...
Apostolic Council

Apostolic Council  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The Council of Jerusalem described in Acts 15 is sometimes called the Apostolic Council though it was presided over by James, brother of the Lord and not himself one of the Twelve. The account in ...
Galatia

Galatia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Celts of Continental Europe, their name is a variant of Gaul . The Galatians clung to their language and customs despite being distant from the centres of Celtic civilization. The neighbouring Greeks accommodated them by explaining that they derived from Heracles and his Gaulish lover Galata . Their country was the site of one of several shrines known as Drunemeton . Evangelized by St Paul in the Epistle to the Galatians. As late as the 5th century St Jerome reported that the language of Ancyra (Ankara) was similar to that spoken near Treves (Trier) in...

Galatia

Galatia   Reference library

William Moir Calder and Stephen Mitchell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
564 words

...). A common council of the three tribes met at a place called Drynemeton (the word means ‘sacred oak-grove’) and tried cases of murder. The Galatians maintained their Celtic character throughout the imperial period and Celtic was still spoken in the rural districts as late as the 6th cent. ad ( see celtic languages ; celts ). (2) The name of a Roman province, formed in 25 bc from the former kingdom of the Galatian tetrarch Amyntas ( 2 ) , which comprised Galatia in the narrow sense, much of eastern Phrygia, Lycaonia , Isauria , Pisidia , and ...

Galatians, Epistle to the

Galatians, Epistle to the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
797 words

...among them J. Calvin , but esp. exponents of the ‘S. Galatian theory’, have equated it with the journey in Acts 11: 29 f. and have thereby explained the absence of references to the ‘decrees’ of Acts 15: 20 on the hypothesis that the Epistle was written before the Council had taken place; that would be in ad 50 or a little earlier, and Galatians would then be the earliest of the Pauline Epistles. Most scholars, however, prefer a later date in the mid-50s because of the contacts with the language and subject-matter of Romans, and some reconcile Paul's...

Celtic

Celtic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

.... A subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. In antiquity, speakers of Celtic languages could be found in what is today Turkey (the Galatians of St Paul's letters), the Balkans, and most of central and western Europe from the Danube valley to the British Isles, including large portions of northern Italy and the Iberian peninsula. In modern times the living Celtic languages have been Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx (now extinct) from the Goidelic or Q-Celtic branch, and Welsh, Cornish (now extinct), and Breton from the Brythonic, Cymric, or ...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
229 words

...the monastic order and married, and devoted himself to forming the League of Protestantism. His translation of the Bible became an influence on the German language as profound as the Authorized Version on English. Thomas Cranmer 's Litany ( 1544 ), the first instalment of the Prayer Book, contains a section which derives from a litany of Luther. His commentary on St Paul 's Letter to the Galatians ( 1535 ), translated into English several times between 1575 and 1644 and highly influential, was greatly praised by John Bunyan . His popular hymn ‘Ein’...

Lycaonia

Lycaonia   Reference library

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Stephen Mitchell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
340 words

...the dissolution of Cilicia the area of Derbe and Laranda was controlled by the dynast Antipater (of Macedonian stock, c. 50–36), while Iconium and the region adjoining Cilicia was assigned by Antony ( M. Antonius (2) ) first to Polemon (1) I from 39 to 36 and then to the Galatian Amyntas (2) . All of Lycaonia was included in the province of Galatia after Amyntas' death in 25 bc , although the mountainous eastern approaches were ruled by client kings ( Archelaus (5) of Cappadocia, his son Archelaus II, Antiochus (9) IV of Commagene) until the...

Celtic Languages

Celtic Languages   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,777 words

...limited use among local revivalists. The Celtic languages have been in decline for nearly two thousand years and most have vanished without obvious trace. The Continental languages survive only in place-names and Greek and Roman records. The Apostle Paul wrote in Greek to Anatolian Celts in his Epistle to the Galatians ; by the time of this letter (IC AD), the Galatians appear to have largely given up their own language. The languages of Iberia and Gaul were replaced in the early Middle Ages by Romance languages and British gave way to English from the 5c...

Pisidia

Pisidia   Reference library

Stephen Mitchell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
292 words

...cities were able to maintain their independence from the Persians and were never effectively controlled by any of the Hellenistic kings. In the late republic Rome preferred to strike deals with individual cities rather than to exercise direct control; Amyntas (2) the Galatian was made king of Pisidia in 36 bc but the area was not thoroughly controlled until it had been included in the province of Galatia . To maintain security Augustus founded a group of ‘Pisidian’ colonies in and around the region, including Antioch (2) , Cremna, Olbasa, and...

Galatians, Paul’s letter to the

Galatians, Paul’s letter to the   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
962 words

..., Paul’s letter to the In the NT, the fourth of the letters of Paul. Was this epistle written to the Churches Paul is said to have visited in Acts in the province of * Galatia , or to other unmentioned Churches in the ethnically Gallic northern part of the province, the ancient kingdom of Galatia? If the former (southern) destination is accepted, then the epistle will be the earliest of the Pauline epistles, hence the prominence in it of Barnabas, and the lack of any mention of Timothy, written perhaps in 48 ce to Churches he had evangelized; if...

Paul

Paul (5 bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,757 words
Illustration(s):
1

...regarding whether the fourteen years of Galatians 2:1 include the three years of 1:18. Evidence for this phase (and for the second phase) comes primarily from Galatians 1:13–2:14. The first phase involves activities in Arabia and Damascus and runs until the first journey to Jerusalem (1:15–18). Here Paul recalls for the Galatian churches his “former way of life in Judaism,” how he had “persecuted the church” and sought to “destroy it.” He describes himself as zealous for “the traditions of the ancestors.” Using language reminiscent of the prophetic calls of...

Celtic Languages

Celtic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,892 words

...and some of it is strongly in dispute. No direct evidence of Galatian (Asia Minor) remains, though it survived until the 5th century CE. 2. Insular Celtic Apart from possible enclaves, Celtic speech appears to have died out on the European continent by 500 ce . In Britain, however, Celtic languages survived the Roman occupation. Scotland north of the Forth-Clyde line (the domain of the Picts) had avoided Romanization, and Ireland had not undergone Roman occupation at all. The modern Celtic languages derive from Insular Celtic (see Schmidt 1993 ). There are...

Gwalther, Rudolf

Gwalther, Rudolf (1519–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
510 words

...with English bishops and others. Gwalther's works include Latin homilies on all the gospels, as well as on Acts of the Apostles, Romans, Corinthians, Galatians , and the twelve minor prophets. He also edited three volumes of the works of Zwingli and translated many of Zwingli's German works into Latin. Gwalther's famous work on the Antichrist ( Der Endtchrist , 1546 ) was translated into several languages. He wrote poems and two works on metrics. He even tried his hand at drama ( Nabal comoedia sacra , 1562 ). After his death his sermon notes on Esther,...

Bible, The.

Bible, The.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
631 words

...sectional strife that led to the Civil War, both North and South mined the Scriptures for support. Defenders of slavery favored Old Testament passages like Leviticus 25:45, which defined conditions for servitude, while antislavery advocates favored New Testament texts like Galatians 5:1, with its paean to liberty in Christ. If anything, the Bible was more obviously at work in the popular culture of African Americans than among whites. Blacks sang and preached about Adam and Eve; Moses and the Exodus from Egypt; Daniel in the lions' den; Jonah in the belly...

Paraphrases

Paraphrases   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
936 words

...2 Peter ( 1907 ), and W. O. Carver 's paraphrase in his commentary on Ephesians ( 1949 ). F. F. Bruce published his paraphrase of Galatians in the Evangelical Quarterly ( January–March 1957 ), and of other Pauline letters in subsequent issues. In 1965 they were all published in one volume, An Expanded Paraphrase of the Epistles of Paul , together with the text of the Revised Version. In light of current modern language translations, Bruce's work appears quite conservative, hardly qualifying as a paraphrase. Romans 1.16–17 reads: “Believe me, I have...

Boğazköy

Boğazköy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,365 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to after 1000 bce . On Büyükkale, the Phrygian level is superceded by one that lasted into the Hellenistic period. In the third century bce , the Celtic Galatians entered Anatolia, and one of their tribes, the Trocmai, settled east of the Halys River. Boğazköy probably belonged to their realm, but an earlier theory, according to which a certain class of decorated Hellenistic pottery was Galatian, is no longer accepted. Under the Romans, Galatia became a province, but the Roman period is poorly attested by scattered remnants of buildings, coins, and some...

theology of the New Testament

theology of the New Testament   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
670 words

...or whether the basic material of NT theology is in the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus without incorporating Jesus' teaching about the Kingdom of God. Then there are apparent diversities of understanding between the several books, such that Paul's Letter to the Galatians led Martin Luther to repudiate the Letter of James ; overt anti-Semitism of John 8: 44 is harsher than Paul's verdict that the Jews' zeal for God lacks knowledge (Rom. 10: 2–3); the friendly attitude to the Roman authorities in the Acts and Rom. 13 contrasts with the horrific...

Predestination

Predestination   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
635 words

...to Peter, asserts that Jesus was delivered up “by the predestined plan and foreknowledge of God.” Paul utilized this language to articulate what he believed God had done in Jesus of Nazareth and what this means for Jews, gentiles , and current believers in Jesus. To the church in Rome he says God foreknew and predestined those whom he called to become the image of his son ( Rom. 8.29 ). In both Romans 11.2 and Galatians 3.8 Paul tries to reconcile God's predestiny of Israel with the predestiny of believers who are not Jews. This is a difficult...

Indo-European Languages

Indo-European Languages   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,692 words
Illustration(s):
1

...includes Ibero-Celtic in central Spain, Gaulish in France up to the Low Countries (Belgae), and Italo-Celtic in northern Italy, all of which were erased by the evolving Romance languages by the fourth century ce , while the Celtic of Germany succumbed to Germanic. Celts, called Galatians, moved into Anatolia in the third century bce and appear to have retained their language amid Phrygians in central Anatolia until the fifth century ce (according to St. Jerome). Celts appear to have reached the British Isles in the fifth century bce . Insular Celtic...

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