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establishment of the port

Subject: History

The interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide. This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the ...

Connell, Raewyn

Connell, Raewyn (1944–)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
89 words

...1944– ) Australian sociologist , instrumental in the establishment of masculinity studies and of southern theory. Also known as R.W. Connell, she is a trans woman who transitioned late in life. She coined the phrase ‘hegemonic masculinity’ to account for the dominance of men and the force of masculinity as a determining logic of everyday life. She also coined the expression ‘patriarchal dividend’ to denote the privilege that automatically accrues to all men by virtue of being men. Her best-known work in the field is Masculinities ( 1995...

bride price

bride price   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
108 words

...price The amount (in money and goods) a groom pays to the family of the bride, supposedly as compensation for their loss of her labour. Though often forbidden by law, it is custom and practice in a number of African countries. It is distinct from the dowry , another form of payment in relation to women on marriage, and the trousseau, a practice in many western countries of an endowment given to women on marriage, either as payment to the husband’s family, or as part of the establishment of the bride and groom’s new household, or as a fall-back for the woman...

paternity suit

paternity suit   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
126 words

...paternity suits could therefore also act to give a certain legitimacy to a child. Paternity suits have become much easier with the advent of DNA testing which makes possible the establishment of genetic connections between...

civil partnership

civil partnership   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
118 words

...and, further, question whether or not the state should play a role at all in the establishment of recognized relationships. There have also been campaigns to enable heterosexual couples to have civil partnerships rather than get...

Anthony, Susan B.

Anthony, Susan B. (1820–1906)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
123 words

...Suffrage . In 1872 Anthony was arrested and brought to trial for voting in her hometown of Rochester. Anthony also promoted women’s rights internationally and was involved in the establishment of the International Council of...

women’s writing

women’s writing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
145 words

...As theories of gender fluidity gained greater hold in the 1990s, écriture féminine became less prominent. The establishment of women’s writing as a field of literary studies enabled the exploration and flourishing of lesbian writing, Black women’s writing, diasporic writing by women, women’s (auto)biographies, and women’s theatre and poetry, all of which gained greater critical...

madness

madness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
238 words

...many forms, such as chaotic or repetitive behaviour and being out of control. In the 1970s and 1980s, as part of the establishment of genealogies of women’s cultural production, a series of texts featuring supposedly mad women, ranging from Jane Eyre to the popular nineteenth-century novels of Wilkie Collins to Charlotte Perkin Gilman’s novella The Yellow Wallpaper , were rediscovered by feminist literature scholars who argued that going mad was a rational response to the oppressiveness of patriarchal regimes and constituted a form of escape from those...

second-wave feminism

second-wave feminism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
195 words

...demonstrations, the establishment of feminist journals, publishing houses, and pamphlets, and through political activism such as consciousness-raising . Under initial banners such as ‘sisterhood is global’ women sought to unite against men since they held most positions of decision-making and power. The movement fell victim to internal divisions among women, with lesbian, working-class, and ethnically and racially diverse women viewing themselves as under-represented within that phase of feminism. Second-wave feminism was superseded by the emergence of ...

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

...phenomena “the new queer chic,” as seen in the passage by Rubin quoted above, demonstrates the failure to recognize and take seriously that both terms, “queer” and “transgender,” were deployed in the early 1990s ( Stryker, 2006 , p. 7; Valentine, 2007 , p. 24). The reasons behind the relative success, establishment, institutionalization, and entrenchment of queer theory and queer studies relative to the “newness” of transgender theory and transgender studies in academic settings need to be interrogated. Transgender Studies. The publication of The Transgender...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

Deborah F. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,164 words

...the world from this perspective, Wittig rewrites the religious past, but instead of recourse to Mother Earth imagery, she elevates the powerful warrior goddesses. The foundation story for Judaism and Christianity receives a radical exegesis that eradicates the figure of Adam. Eve stands alone in the Garden, taking and eating the fruit for the benefit of womankind. Wittig’s call for the establishment of a lesbian culture is cast as a utopian vision, offering a female subjectivity that, at best, only exists on the cultural margins. Butler. The North...

Mujerista Criticism

Mujerista Criticism   Reference library

Leticia Guardiola-Saenz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,558 words

...with the central biblical message. The biblical text has to be consistent with a theologically sound concept of God based on the understanding of the community. The text should be measured against the perspective of the whole life of Jesus. Particular biblical and theological presuppositions undergird mujerista criticism. First, the God of the Gospels is understood to have a preferential option for the poor and the marginalized. Second, the main message that Jesus preaches in the Gospels is understood as the establishment of the Kin-dom of God, where the...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Claudia Setzer, Susanne Scholz, and Surekha Nelavala

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
14,515 words

...in the United States, that the nurturing of alliances beyond the narrow confines of one’s immediate affiliation is essential to making this proposal a reality. Feminist Bible scholars will need to resist, perhaps more than ever, the lure and rewards of what postcolonial theorists call the empire. At the same time they will need to articulate and build theoretical and practical alternatives so that the next generation is able to continue the work. The establishment of institutions that foster such emancipatory alternatives in biblical studies and in the world...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...Israel two forms of religious leadership. On the one hand, there was the priestly leadership that oversaw the Jewish sacrificial rituals, first all over the country and later in the Jerusalem Temple. This leadership claimed its descent from Aaron the brother of Moses and represented the religious establishment in Israel and then in Judah. The priests, according to the Bible, received their authority from their descent: one could not become but was born a priest. In the Bible, the priesthood is a male office, and the Temple was rarely visited by women. Whether...

Historical-Critical Approaches

Historical-Critical Approaches   Reference library

Davina C. Lopez and Todd Penner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,251 words

...the continued domination of women, even as women desired otherwise for themselves. Thus, The Woman’s Bible was to provide a radical and liberating perspective for the women of Stanton’s time, using then-contemporary developments in historical understandings of biblical literature to do so. The Woman’s Bible was controversial upon its publication, endured challenges from the mainstream religious establishment as well as from feminist colleagues, and was certainly not the only attempt to apply feminist consciousness to the “new” historical criticism of the...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...of the female is a component part of the Priestly creation story—“male and female He created them” ( Gen 1:27 JPS) and women also contribute to the establishment of the Tabernacle, a sacred event long recognized as a reflex of creation. The sacred space of the Tabernacle constitutes the center of the nation in the opening of the Priestly book of Numbers. Because the tribes are arranged in fixed positions along the circumference of the Tabernacle, they appear as constituent parts of a larger unified whole. The national configuration is clarified as Moses...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

...and prescribe the distribution of the edible meat to humans. The consumption of meat in ancient west Asia and the ancient Mediterranean itself appears to have been a major index of status, with elite males consuming the most and best meats with the most frequency, while free women, children, and enslaved persons consumed far less, including portions of sacrificial meat. Some scholars (e.g., Jay, 1992 ) have suggested that the killing, cooking, and eating of sacrificial meat played a major role in the establishment and maintenance of gender hierarchy, but...

Popular Religion and Magic

Popular Religion and Magic   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Ann Jeffers, Pauline Hanesworth, Nicola Denzey Lewis, Jared C. Calaway, Mika Ahuvia, and Justin Marc Lasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,199 words

...which were not matters of public performance. The official priestly establishment kept the divinity localized in his shrine or temple and generally in a good mood, allowing the great gods of the pantheon to serve as enforcers for legitimate private magical rites. Private rites served a wide variety of human needs, including healing from illness; avoiding misfortune; having success in business, love, and in courts of law; and resolving quarrels. The temple also provided expertise in the form of staff for the performance of private rites. Paid experts were...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...Bik. 1:5), since a female slave would be suspected of sexual promiscuity ( t. Hor . 2:11). The treatment of slaves typifies how sex can be used as a means of class distinctions, drawing upon Greco-Roman practice where the Bible is silent. The establishment of Augustan mores in the first century probably had some effect, but in similar fashion to Christian households we must assume a dual morality in which the exploitation of sex slaves contravened the ethics of the household (cf. Glancy, 2011 , pp. 133–152). While accusations of pederasty and rape could...

Education

Education   Reference library

Heather D. D. Parker, Erin E. Fleming, Timothy J. Sandoval, Daniele Pevarello, Michele Kennerly, Pheme Perkins, Sarit Kattan Gribetz, and Lillian I. Larsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
28,684 words

...literacy in the service of managing estates arguably serve to legitimate female oversight of Christian ascetic communities, gendered norms remain firmly ensconced within an expanded household model. How early such rearticulation of “domestic tendance” begins remains a question dependent on the source material one chooses to privilege. Some judge the households referenced in the writings of Paul and depicted in the Acts of Thecla to already contain the pedagogical seeds of literate investment that appear to take root in later establishments ( Davies, 1980...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...or paralyzed. Marriages could be terminated by the death of one of the spouses, desertion, and divorce. Just as the establishment of marriage was a legal proceeding, divorce required the legal dissolution of contractual agreements. The husband possessed the right to initiate divorce on any grounds. Declaring a formulaic statement, “you are/she is not my wife,” effectively dissolved the marriage. Some texts also mention the divorcing husband as “cutting the (wife’s) hem,” possibly a symbolic ritual action to end the marriage. If a husband divorced his wife for...

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