View:

Overview

establishment of the port

Subject: History

The interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide. This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the ...

World Bank, The

World Bank, The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...The The World Bank is an international institution established by treaty and governed by public international law. Its formal title is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The IBRD was established in 1944 by the Bretton Woods Agreement and is based in Washington, D.C. After the establishment of the United Nations (UN) in 1945 , the IBRD became a UN specialized agency. [See United Nations .] The World Bank Group now includes the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Development Association (IDA), and the...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of the need for conservation. Even by the mid-1800s, many forms of wildlife were so decimated that some members of the public sought to bring in conservation measures. Sportsmen's organizations sought laws to ban the hunting and sale of game when the animals were breeding and raising young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...and to ban the hunting and sale of game when the animals were breeding and raising young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American...

Montreal Protocol

Montreal Protocol   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...countries (Article 5 of the Protocol), linked to certain objective conditions 5. An enabling provision for the establishment of a Non-Compliance Procedure (Article 8 of the Protocol). Two important elements were still missing, however, and were added via the London Amendment of 1990 . First, an extension of the grace provisions for developing countries (Article 5), in particular the establishment of a clear link between the provision of financial and technical assistance by industrialized countries and the implementation of the commitments of parties that...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...exploited. In the administrative stage, an initial reliance on natural regeneration is often unsuccessful because the bureaucratic approach to management and harvest does not respect the ecology of the natural regeneration process. The predictable result is an increasing dependence on planting, seeding, or other methods of assisted forestation. This in turn encourages the use of harvesting methods, such as clear-cutting, that are easier and generally more economical. Such methods may be biologically superior for the planting and establishment of a new forest...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Resolution 2997 (XXVII)]. In 1988 , the General Assembly first recognized the significance of possible global climate change and endorsed the establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Resolution 43/905). It convened the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (where the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the FCCC, and a Statement of Forest Principles were adopted) and set up the Commission on Sustainable Development. The United Nations has initiated and administers many legal...

Global Environment Facility

Global Environment Facility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...is the best source of information about the GEF. It is regularly updated with information about the GEF's projects and policies, documentation from meetings of the GEF Council and Assembly, and GEF Working Papers. Bibliography Fairman, D. The Global Environment Facility: Haunted by the Shadow of the Future. In Institutions for Environmental Aid: Pitfalls and Promise , edited by R. Keohane and M. Levy . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 55–87. Analyzes the interests and interactions of the GEF's key stakeholders during the GEF's establishment, pilot...

Marine Pollution Convention

Marine Pollution Convention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...), the International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties ( 1969 ), the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage ( 1971 ), and the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter ( 1972 ). Primarily concerned with nonaccidental pollution, MARPOL established five pollutant-specific annexes regulating oil, liquid chemicals, harmful packaged substances, sewage, and garbage discharged by ships. The...

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...and national contact points. The establishment of communities of HDGEC researchers on national and regional levels promotes collaboration, community building, best-practice and experience sharing, and allows for workshops on regionally relevant themes. IHDP also has a visiting-scholars program with the University of Bonn with participation from UNU. Another initiative involving collaboration with individual member countries sends postdoctoral researchers to the IHDP Secretariat with the goal of training scientists and bridging the science-policy gap....

Greenpeace

Greenpeace   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...is difficult because of the complexities of measuring shifts in public opinion and tracing governmental policy changes directly back to efforts of particular activists, organizations, and campaigns. Nonetheless, there is some scholarly consensus that Greenpeace has had a significant influence on a number of issues. These include the establishment of the Basel Convention, which bans the exportation of toxic waste material from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD countries, the strengthening of the International Whaling...

Straddling and Migratory Stocks Agreement

Straddling and Migratory Stocks Agreement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the harvesting of those stocks, was adopted and opened for signature. Under the Agreement, the parties are required to apply the precautionary principle to ensure the sustainable and responsible harvesting of the stocks. [See Precautionary Principle .] The Agreement relies heavily on the establishment and/or strengthening of regional and subregional arrangements or organizations. Both coastal states and distant-water-fishing nations are invited to participate in the work of these organizations to adopt measures that ensure long-term sustainability of the...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...logging that left no seed trees, or simply because there are no seed trees of the desired tree species in the surrounding forest. The natural processes of reforestation may not work because the surface of the soil (the seedbed) is not in a suitable condition for seed germination and seedling establishment. Consumption of seed by insects, rodents, or other seed-eating animals, or the killing of seed by fungal pathogens in the soil may prevent natural generation or make it very unreliable. Unfavorable microclimatic conditions (temperature, moisture, and exposure...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...free of them. During the nineteenth century acclimatization societies actively promoted establishment of Northern Hemisphere animals to give a European character to Australia's environment and to provide game for recreational hunting; some have become serious pests, most notably fox and rabbit. The only naturalized amphibian, the cane toad ( Bufo marinus ), was introduced the middle of the twentieth century in the mistaken belief it would control an invertebrate pest of sugar cane. It is still aggressively expanding its range in the Australian tropics. There...

Leopold, Aldo

Leopold, Aldo   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...protection. Disturbed by the impact of accelerated road-building on North America's remaining wild lands, he led efforts that in 1924 resulted in the designation of the nation's first wilderness area within the Gila National Forest in New Mexico. Leaving the Forest Service in 1928 , Leopold devoted himself to the establishment of wildlife management as a distinct field. First as an independent field researcher ( 1928–1933 ), then as professor at the University of Wisconsin ( 1933–1948 ), Leopold endeavored to apply the insights of ecology (especially...

World Heritage Sites

World Heritage Sites   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in 1972 . The Convention's goals may be summarized as the establishment of a system of international cooperation through which the world's heritage can be protected and enhanced in an orderly way throughout the world. The United States, which was the first nation to propose the concept of linking nature and culture in a single World Heritage List, was also the first to ratify the World Heritage Convention, in 1973 . After a quarter century, the Convention is, with 160 signatories (technically known as “States Parties”) participating, the most widely...

International Human Dimensions Programme On Global Environmental Change

International Human Dimensions Programme On Global Environmental Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...with the common objective of strengthening links and synergies between individual researchers and research institutions working on human dimensions issues. National Human Dimensions Committees are an essential component of the IHDP's research strategy, emphasizing a bottom-up approach, and the IHDP is presently working with over twenty national committees and programs at various levels of development and activity. These activities are facilitated by the establishment of a quarterly newsletter, IHDP Update , and a Web site. As defined within the IHDP, the human...

Agassiz, Louis

Agassiz, Louis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...ice-age theory and used them to explain some of the current geographical distributions of particular plants and animals. Agassiz's many honors and awards included the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London and the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society of London. Complementing his research and teaching, he founded the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard in 1859 , founded the Anderson School of Natural History on Penikese Island, Massachusetts, in 1873 , and was influential in the establishment of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1863 ....

Convention On Biological Diversity

Convention On Biological Diversity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the CBD's origins in the environmental groups and governments, mainly in the industrialized world. The treaty specifically obliges countries to develop national biodiversity plans and to monitor their biological resources. It requires in situ efforts to protect biological diversity, such as the establishment of protected areas and rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems. It also obliges countries to complement those efforts with ex situ conservation, such as occurs in botanical gardens, zoos, and seed banks. The obligations of the CBD are...

Colorado River, Transformation of The

Colorado River, Transformation of The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,603 words
Illustration(s):
1

...zones, but the occasional flood (e.g., that of 1983 ) scours these areas and reestablishes appropriate conditions for future marsh development. Most marshes form in wide areas of the canyon where backwaters may be extensive. Regulated flows and the establishment of dense riparian vegetation have enhanced the diversity of the avian community within the Grand Canyon. The lack of wide seasonal swings in river discharge allows greater utilization of the riverine ecosystem by water birds. Waterfowl occur mostly in winter along several reaches through the canyon....

Biomes

Biomes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,179 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the place where seedling establishment will be required in the future. It is probable that future climate change will not cause catastrophic dieback of forests but that faster-growing tree species will enter existing forests over long periods. Boreal forest will give way to other biomes (such as temperate forest) on its southern margins but will expand into tundra in the north ( Chapin and Danell , 2001 ). Arctic and alpine tundra may suffer especially severe losses as a result of warming. As the tree line moves up mountains and migrates northward in the...

View: