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establishment of the port

Subject: History

The interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide. This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the ...

National Endowment For the Arts

National Endowment For the Arts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,027 words

...the arts through the tax code, an approach that enjoys support from the entire political spectrum in the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. The United States also has a history of direct support for the arts that is often overlooked. The establishment of the Marine Band in 1790 was the first government support of a musical ensemble. The first support for the visual arts came in 1817 , when Congress commissioned painter John Trumball to paint Revolutionary War scenes for the Capitol Rotunda. Books on art and music were included in the...

ESSON, Henry

ESSON, Henry (1793–1853)   Reference library

Charles A. Hobbs and John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the branches of Presbyterianism in Canada. Esson opposed any plan of unity, and led an effort to more closely unite with the Church of Scotland. Unable to obtain financial support from Scotland, they petitioned without success for recognition as an established church in Canada alongside the Church of England. This struggle and others involving Esson did encourage the establishment of the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland in 1831 . Relations with the Church of Scotland continued to be unstable; by 1843–44 ...

Lagos Plan of Action

Lagos Plan of Action   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...signified a great measure for the reevaluation of gender relations in Africa. The year 2000 was meant to mark the establishment of the African Economic Community but came to pass without the realization of the LPA ideal. The African economic crisis worsened against the backdrop of World Bank opposition and the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Program. Since 1980 , the diversity of opinion on Africa’s development has meant that various strategies have been formulated for the development of the continent. Arguing that the LPA, for instance, was a...

Mboya, Tom

Mboya, Tom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,006 words

...in Kenya” to guide government economic policy. The association with the ICFTU, which Mboya believed was necessary for the survival of unions in Africa, sparked off a crisis over whether or not African unions should establish links with unions outside the continent. Thus differences emerged between Mboya and Nkrumah, leading to the establishment of the Monrovia and the Casablanca group of states respectively. Mboya believed that economic or political systems needed to be flexible if they had to survive and at the same time benefit society. To achieve this, he...

doubting

doubting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
349 words

...demon who is bent on deceiving us, and so ‘the earth, sky, and all external things’ may be merely delusions. Cartesian doubt is not, however, an end in itself, but it is designed to clear the way for the establishment of a secure system of knowledge built on indubitable foundations. The questioning of accepted beliefs and preconceived opinions can be a valuable exercise both in philosophy and in science generally ( see common sense ). It seems, however, that to insist on indubitability as a criterion of the acceptability of beliefs is to insist on an...

WHITE, Charles

WHITE, Charles (1795–1861)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Intellect to Religion,” “The Practical Element in Christianity,” “The Conservative Element in Christianity,” “Protestant Christianity adapted to be the Religion of the World,” and “Literary Responsibilities of Teachers.” White staunchly defended the importance of classical and religious education. He wrote, “These three services for the west, the creation of eminent scholarship, the improvement and extension of primary education, the establishment of a superior and Christian civilization, constitute the grand design and effort of western...

neurolinguistics

neurolinguistics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
490 words

... 1871 , Pick 1913 , Isserlin 1922 , Jakobson 1956 ), the term neurolinguistics and more systematic application of linguistic ideas have only become widespread since 1970 . In 1969 , the neurologist Henri Hécaen and the linguist Armand Dubois declared the object of neurolinguistics to be, first, the establishment of ‘a purely linguistic typology’ of neurologically caused verbal disorders, and, second, the achievement of an experimentally verifiable correlation of lesion sites with the linguistic types. In practice, however, it has proved difficult...

CHURCH, Alonzo

CHURCH, Alonzo (1793–1862)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...help maintain the strictest level of student discipline, in an era when professors began regarding themselves as primarily scholars, made faculty retention difficult. Facing a mandatory university reorganization and the establishment of new professional schools, Church retired in 1859 . He was succeeded in the office of President by Andrew Lipscomb , and Patrick Hues Mell became professor of metaphysics and ethics. Church died near Athens, Georgia on 18 May 1862 . Bibliography A discourse delivered before the Georgia Historical Society, on the occasion of...

FINLEY, William

FINLEY, William (1803–1876)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and Finley was able to recruit Agassiz to lecture at the college in the early 1850s. In 1850 the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science was held in Charleston. At Agassiz’s urging, this enthusiasm for science soon resulted in the establishment of a natural history society and a museum in Charleston. During the late 1840s and the 1850s, the College of Charleston was the finest institution of higher learning in America located south of Philadelphia. The destiny of the college would be determined by political forces that...

Walter, William Grey

Walter, William Grey (1910–76)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
594 words

... by a severe head injury from which he never fully recovered. Grey Walter was a pioneer and an intellectual leader of world renown, but he was never fully accepted by the British scientific establishment. He wrote some 200 research papers and a uniquely stimulating book, The Living Brain ( 1953 ), which attracted many students to follow in his footsteps. (Published 1987) Ray...

LADD, William

LADD, William (1778–1841)   Reference library

Michael Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...his pragmatic orientation to the problem of organizing against violence. By virtue of his 1831 pamphlet calling for the establishment of a Congress of Nations and a Court of Nations, Ladd became a leader of the movement to provide international bodies for the settlement of disputes between countries. Support for such plans was high in New England, where the establishment still grumbled about the disruptions caused by the War of 1812 , and the farcical Aroostook War of the late 1830s made clear the mischief that could thrive in the absence of international...

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin (1805–1899)   Reference library

David E. Pfeifer and John Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...education suited for the needs of the working classes. Turner became deeply involved in this growing movement towards the establishment of land grant colleges. Although U.S. Congressman Justin Morrill never publicly stated that Turner’s ideas and activism were behind the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act which established land-grant universities, the historical record clearly shows how Turner was a powerful proponent of this idea. Turner gave a speech in Griggsville on 13 May 1850 titled “A Plan for a State University for the Industrial Classes.” On...

catecholamines

catecholamines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
811 words

...illness are able to act by altering the availability of noradrenaline at the receptor level. Noradrenaline fibres may also have a role to play in the establishment and selection of normal synaptic connections during development and in the recovery of function after damage to the nervous system. The third main group of catecholamine neurons of the brain are those utilizing dopamine as transmitter. These neurons have been the subject of much research, because there are two common clinical conditions alleviated by drugs that interact with dopamine neurons—...

Herskovits, Melville Jean

Herskovits, Melville Jean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,350 words

...As an adviser to the Encyclopedia of the Negro project during the 1930 s, Herskovits sought to discredit the project, which was edited by Du Bois. In the 1940 s, as chairman of the American Council of Learned Societies’ Committee on Negro Studies, Herskovits limited black scholars’ influence and curtailed plans to protest limits on access to archives for black scholars. He also opposed the establishment of an African Studies program at Fisk University, a black college in Nashville, Tennessee, during World War II. Nonetheless, in the postwar era,...

CRAWFORD, John

CRAWFORD, John (1746–1813)   Reference library

Richard J. Behles

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...natural history, a focus which he maintained was the only responsible one, and which lay at the core of his own thinking. He accordingly lamented the similar deficiencies found in the prevailing medical training curricula and textbooks. Frequently acknowledging Francis Bacon , Crawford advanced a neo-classic approach in interpreting the causes of disease. Keeping the Creator ever before his eyes, Crawford cited the courses of nature and its creatures as the foundation of all truth. The medical establishment’s contemporary reliance upon conjecture necessarily...

mesmerism

mesmerism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,045 words

...establishment, and the French government was eventually led to appoint a royal commission to conduct an enquiry into animal magnetism under the chairmanship of Benjamin Franklin . Among its members were Lavoisier , the famous chemist, and Guillotin , who gave his name to the instrument of decapitation that a few years later claimed the head of Lavoisier himself. This commission examined exhaustively not only the alleged medical benefits of mesmerism but also the evidence for the existence of animal magnetism itself, to which it quite properly adopted an...

plasticity in the nervous system

plasticity in the nervous system   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,654 words
Illustration(s):
6

...a few weeks) back to the tectum, they form a map of the remaining half of the retina across the appropriate half of the tectum (Fig. 2). The regenerating fibres will even ignore available, but inappropriate, termination sites left unoccupied by the part of the retina that has been removed (Attardi and Sperry 1963 ). A similar phenomenon of the precise re-establishment of connections is demonstrated when half the tectum is removed ( Gaze and Sharma 1970 ). In this case, it is again only fibres from the appropriate half of the retina that are found to...

MARSH, George Perkins

MARSH, George Perkins (1801–1882)   Reference library

Sean Brown

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...civil law. Marsh developed a distinguished political career in the Whig party. He served as a member of the Supreme Council for Vermont’s upper chamber beginning in 1835 and, beginning in 1842 , he served three terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, playing a key role in the establishment of the Smithsonian Institution. Finally, Marsh worked for the state department. He was Minister to the Turkish Empire from 1849 till 1854 and in 1861 he was appointed by Lincoln as Minister to Italy, a position he held until his death. Marsh died on 23 July...

Sufism

Sufism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
993 words

...in, for example, Christianity. The orders are therefore regarded as secondary, and few, if any, of their putative founders, famous Sufi masters, were really connected with their establishment. Their practices are mostly of a devotional autohypnotic nature, and produce conditioned states which are much at variance with essential Sufi theory relating to the need for individual and specificzteaching. Most groups which employ the name Sufi in the Middle and Far East and Africa are in fact Islamic prayer congregations of the enthusiast type. Many closely...

LATHROP, John Hiram

LATHROP, John Hiram (1799–1866)   Reference library

Kevin P. S. Tanner

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...during the nineteenth century, playing vital roles in the establishment of the University of Missouri and the University of Wisconsin. As the first leader of both institutions, he helped modernize higher education by emphasizing secular thought and organizing the schools around colleges of arts and science that emphasized the liberal arts tradition. Lathrop was born in Sherburne, New York on 22 January 1799 . He attended Hamilton College in Clinton, New York from 1815 to 1817 , before transferring to Yale College where he graduated with the BA degree in...

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