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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Establishment

Establishment   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
391 words

... . In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the civil order, but the first move towards the establishment of the Christian Church dates from the time of Constantine ( d. 337 ); he not only granted toleration to Christianity, but he gave the Church a favoured position in the Empire and exercised considerable control over its affairs. After the Reformation the RC Church remained the established religion in much...

Establishment

Establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,196 words

...to that of the Pope, and of equally Divine origin. The establishment of national Churches completely rejecting the authority of the Pope, while asserting their continuity with the primitive Church, involved some adjustments; these normally included financial support for the established Church by the state and more direct control over appointments and other matters. By the 18th cent., however, the whole idea of established Churches was being challenged. The American constitution forbade an establishment of religion, on grounds of principle. In Ireland and ...

establishment

establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The successful growth and reproduction of plants and/or animals in a site that provides them with favourable...

establishment

establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... A loose way of describing the holders of power and influence in society and the sense of their shared interests overall in maintaining things as they are, particularly their secure and privileged position, even if they may not always act as a bloc on individual issues. Radical critics of mainstream social work have accused it of serving the needs of the establishment by containing and stabilizing potentially disruptive social problems. See also elite ; radical social work...

establishment fee

establishment fee   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... fee A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee ....

establishment clause

establishment clause   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
147 words

... clause The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to overturn, or declare unconstitutional, state laws involving the government in religious activities, such as prayers or religious programs in public schools. For example, the Court used the establishment clause to strike down state government laws in Engel v. Vitale ( 1962 ) and Wallace v. Jaffree ( 1985 ). There is general agreement that the...

permanent establishment

permanent establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
107 words

...establishment Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the model double taxation agreement drawn up by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, a permanent establishment is defined as a ‘fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on’. The model agreement goes on to state specifically that the term ‘permanent establishment’ includes a place...

permanent establishment

permanent establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
106 words

...establishment Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer's residence , unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the model double-tax agreement drawn up by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, a permanent establishment is defined as a ‘fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on’. The model agreement goes on to state specifically that the term ‘permanent establishment’ includes a place of...

permanent establishment

permanent establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
112 words

...permanent establishment Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence , unless the taxpayer has a “permanent establishment” in the other territory. In the model double tax agreement drawn up by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, a permanent establishment is defined as a “fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on”. The model agreement goes on to state specifically that the term “permanent establishment” includes a place...

permanent establishment

permanent establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
60 words

...establishment A fixed place of business that a taxpayer of one country has in another country, thus rendering the taxpayer liable to that second country’s taxation. It will include a place of management, branch, office, factory or workshop, and long-term construction projects but it may exclude some sales offices and storage depots. The concept is important in double-taxation ...

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

peace establishment

peace establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...establishment the authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., The A term long used to denote in particular the established church of england , but now a popular designation for the group or class of people who have authority within a society, especially, in Britain, those who control not only the Church of England but the government, the civil service and the armed forces. It has a somewhat derogatory significance associated with reaction, privilege and ‘stuffiness’. By the ‘Establishment’ I do not mean only the centres of official power – though they are certainly part of it – but rather the whole matrix...

establishment book

establishment book   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
111 words

... book ‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm, both civil and military, maintained at the expense of the sovereign or state. These will include officers of the Admiralty, of fortified towns, fortresses (such as the Tower of London), royal palaces, forests, and Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster. They may well also include Royal Household accounts ( see royal household accounts ). Such books are usually...

Building Research Establishment

Building Research Establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Research Establishment ( BRE ) An independent consultancy that specializes in undertaking work in the built environment. www.bre.co.uk Web-link details the official...

right of establishment

right of establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
30 words

...of establishment The right under EU law of a national of a member state of the European Union to engage in and manage businesses in any other member...

right of establishment

right of establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
32 words

...right of establishment The right under the Treaty of Rome of a national of a member state of the European Community to engage in and manage businesses in any other member state....

establishment of religion

establishment of religion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
412 words

... of religion . A religious organization is established when, by law, it enjoys the unique protection and support of the state and in some measure comes under its control. The term establishment comes from the law of England. Before Confederation the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England displayed many of the characteristics of a church establishment in much of what is now Canada. In New France, the Roman Catholic curé and seigneur were seen as partners in shepherding their communities. Religious orders ran schools and hospitals. Parish...

National Military Establishment

National Military Establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Military Establishment an organization created by the National Security Act of 1947 , comprised of the heads of the armed forces departments, and responsible for coordinating and responding to defense issues after World War II . The CIA and the National Security Council were created by the same...

Establishment of Court

Establishment of Court   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,390 words

... of Court . The primitive court arrangements brought to Australia on British settlement included avenues of appeals, in the modern sense, from early quasi-judicial officers to the colonial Governor and thence to the Privy Council . Those appeals were permitted partly by statute and partly by the royal prerogative. With the creation, from the 1820s, of colonial Supreme Courts having jurisdictions akin to those of the Superior Courts at Westminster, supervisory and corrective powers over lower courts were exercised by prerogative writs and other...

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