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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

basic rest–activity cycle

basic rest–activity cycle n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... restactivity cycle n. A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep . Also called the restactivity cycle . BRAC ...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...ended up affecting the book industry or the business of bookselling: for example, a protectionist national policy toward papermaking in Mexico resulted in higher production costs for books. In addition, the fall in oil prices, precipitating a financial crisis that led to cycles of hyperinflation, devaluation, and economic recession in most of the region during the 1980s actually reduced the population’s income, increased book production costs, and led to declining book sales. From 1984 to 1990 , for example, Argentina produced 18 per cent fewer...

chronobiology

chronobiology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. The branch of biology concerned with biological rhythms . See biological clock , biological rhythm . See also alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , circadian rhythm , circannual rhythm , delta wave , gamma wave , infradian rhythm , menstrual cycle , sensorimotor rhythm , sleep–wake cycle , suprachiasmatic nucleus , telomere , theta wave , ultradian rhythm , Zeitgeber . [From Greek chronos time + English biology...

biological rhythm

biological rhythm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rhythm n. Any periodic, more-or-less regular fluctuation or cycle in a biological system or process that is not wholly under the control of environmental cues but is controlled centrally by a biological clock . It may be an ultradian rhythm such as a circannual rhythm or a menstrual cycle ; a circadian rhythm such as the sleep–wake cycle ; or an infradian rhythm such as an alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , delta wave , gamma wave , sensorimotor rhythm , or theta wave . See also chronobiology , pacemaker...

infradian rhythm

infradian rhythm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rhythm n . Any biological rhythm with a period of less than a day. See alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , delta wave , gamma wave , sensorimotor rhythm , theta wave . See also biological clock , chronobiology , Zeitgeber . Compare circadian rhythm , circannual rhythm , ultradian rhythm . [From Latin infra under + dies a...

sleep

sleep n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...III, and IV NREM sleep respectively. See also basal forebrain , basic restactivity cycle , circadian rhythm , delta sleep-inducing peptide , delta wave , dream ( 1 ) , dyssomnias , hypnagogic image , hypnopompic image , K complex , locus coeruleus , magnocellular nucleus , melatonin , nucleus gigantocellularis , paradoxical sleep , parasomnias , PGO spike , pineal gland , polysomnography , pseudoinsomnia , REM atonia , REM rebound , sleep spindle , sleep–wake cycle , sleepwalking , slow-wave sleep , subcoerulear nucleus...

Nutrient and Biogeochemical Cycling

Nutrient and Biogeochemical Cycling   Reference library

Deane WANG

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,943 words

...of management emphasized the need for research into the basic ecosystem dynamics of a whole suite of elements, including both nutrients and environmental contaminants. This new approach to understanding ecosystems has been subsequently applied to understanding acid rain, nitrogen saturation (over-fertilization), mercury pollution, and the biggest hurdle of the twenty-first century, global climate change. Sustainability: Nutrient and Biogeochemical Cycling As suggested above, nutrient cycling criteria may provide some of the most rigorous and...

Mbuti Dance

Mbuti Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
760 words

...as in the reproductive cycle, which is echoed in dance movements. As if to regenerate the cycle interrupted by the death, the molimo dance emphasizes the separate but equally necessary roles of male and female in creating life. The men build a sacred fire as they dance and then, with a movement imitating the act of copulation, fan it into a blaze. The women slowly and deliberately dance through the fire, scattering the burning logs, which the men once again build into a blaze. At any moment, the women can stop the activity of the men— “killing the hunt...

mélodie

mélodie   Reference library

Leslie Orrey and Roger Nichols

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
942 words

...to Gounod's basic model. Fauré's early songs remain close to the romance , but in such a mélodie as Automne ( 1878 ) the regular rhythms are already threatening rather than consoling. His 17 settings of Paul Verlaine , made between 1887 and 1894 , wonderfully mirror the poet's elegant, melancholy languor and, in the cycle La Bonne Chanson ( 1892–4 ), his ability to break out into joy. Such later cycles as La Chanson d'Ève ( 1906–10 ) and Le Jardin clos ( 1914 ) show Fauré's harmony at its most elusive, but in two final cycles, Mirages (...

Festivals and Festival Cycles

Festivals and Festival Cycles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,724 words

...more complex; it was dialectical, and its symbolism was exuberant. Besides the solar reference, the structure of the festival calendar derived from seasonal and agricultural cycles. The division of the year into the dry season ( tonalco ) and the rainy season ( xopan ) was fundamental. Ceremonies dedicated to the deities of rain, maize, and the earth provided the basic calendrical cycle. Mesoamerica is situated within the tropical latitudes, where the sun passes the zenith twice a year, on its apparent journey toward the Tropic of Cancer (23°27′N), and on its...

Endurance

Endurance   Reference library

Lisa TOSCANO

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
3,481 words

...of the heart and lungs to take in and transport adequate amounts of oxygen to working muscles increases when one engages in activities such as running, walking or hiking, swimming, cycling, cross-country skiing, dancing, and endurance games and activities that are performed over long periods of time at a certain heart rate. Two Marine officer candidates take their turn at the endurance run during physical training at the Basic School for Marine officers at the Marine Corps Development and Education Command, June 1980 . National Archives. The key to...

Ritualizing and Anthropology

Ritualizing and Anthropology   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,720 words

... identified two principal types of rituals, both tied to natural cycles: rites of passage and rites of intensification . Rites of passage involve transformations in the life cycle of an individual. They typically occur around times of personal transition, such as birth, puberty, marriage and death. Initiation rites for shamans, healers, priests and priestesses are also considered rites of passage. In some religions, rites of passage involve the temporary isolation of initiates from the rest of society. Among the Plains Indians in North America, for example,...

Exercise and Health

Exercise and Health   Reference library

Becky CLARK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
4,073 words

...problems. Recommended Levels and Types of Exercise Physical activity and exercise do not need to be strenuous. WHO recommends thirty minutes of physical activity/exercise at a moderate intensity daily. Physical activity and exercise are measured by frequency, intensity (mild, moderate, strenuous), and duration (time/length). They can be aerobic and/or anaerobic in nature. This also includes weight-bearing exercises (e.g., free weights, machine weights, body weight). Endurance activities (e.g., cycling, walking, running, swimming) increase heart rate and...

Leisure

Leisure   Reference library

Garry CHICK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
2,412 words

...diaries kept by research respondents. Leisure as Activity The most common leisure activity for humans, both past and present, is undoubtedly resting or sleeping. The anthropologist Lauriston Sharp indicated that the Yir Yiront, an Australian Aboriginal tribe, devoted the majority of their leisure to rest: Any leisure time the Yir Yiront might gain by using steel axes or other western tools was invested, not in “improving the conditions of life,” and certainly not in developing aesthetic activities, but in sleep, an art that they had thoroughly...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,144 words

... is given some analytical purchase by being organized —in the first instance at least—around the cyclical nature of economic activity. Capitalist economies—of which the US is exemplary—tend to move in cycles of what is popularly known as “boom and bust.” In a more academic parlance this is termed the “business cycle,” and it has tended to take a six to ten-year period to move through the stages of first an expansion of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy (or...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,185 words

...given some analytical purchase by being organized—in the first instance at least—around the cyclical nature of economic activity. Capitalist economies—of which the United States is exemplary—tend to move in cycles of what is popularly known as “boom and bust.” In a more academic parlance this is termed the “business cycle,” and it has tended to take a six to ten year period to move through the stages of first an expansion of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy...

Bacteria and Archaea

Bacteria and Archaea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,133 words
Illustration(s):
2

...number of microbes deriving their existence from coupling the oxidation-reduction reactions is incredibly important for the cycling of elements on earth. Global cycles, including those of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, are driven primarily by the metabolic activity of microbes, and it is these activities that support plant and animal life on the planet. Most of what we know about microbes and their contribution to global cycles is derived from studies of microbes that have been isolated from all other organisms and grown in “pure cultures.” Growing a...

Hydrology

Hydrology   Reference library

Sara Gabrielle BEAVIS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,571 words

...evidence for an understanding of the critical importance of water for survival and economic prosperity. In ancient Greece, Thales of Miletos ( 624–584 bce ) studied the regular flooding of the Nile River; Plato ( 428–348 bce ) developed basic concepts of the water cycle and recognized the impacts of human activities on water quality. By the time of the Roman Empire, engineering hydrology had developed to the point at which aqueduct systems, up to hundreds of kilometers in total length, distributed water from springs, lakes, and rivers to large urban...

Property and Possessions

Property and Possessions   Reference library

Laura M. HARTMAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,719 words

...tradition. Judaism’s God promises the chosen people a land flowing with milk and honey, a place of ease and abundance, as a reward for their faithfulness (Exodus 3:8). Judaism’s unique cycles of productive work and holy rest arise from observing the Sabbath, a weekly day of rest, when production ceases and adherents engage in spiritual activities. This tradition of periodic rest functions less as an ascetic self-denial than as a limit on productive work (and therefore on property and possessions), placing them in their proper spiritual perspective. Christians seek...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...linear energy transfer radiation. Gamma rays (γ) are photons emitted from the nucleus of a radionuclide during radioactive decay. source : From Mounfield ( 1991 , p. 333). High-volume, low-activity solid wastes arise in mining and uranium ore processing at the front end of the fuel cycle, from reactor operations, and from plant decommissioning. Generally speaking, low-activity wastes contain radionuclides with short half-lives and are short-lived. Most of the world's annual total of mined uranium—around 34,000 metric tons in 1995 —is mined in Canada (32...

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