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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Yin–Yang Theory

Yin–Yang Theory   Reference library

James D. SELLMANN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...of the five phases was ascending and what color and emblem the state should institute as its model. If the natural cycles of yin, yang, and the five phases could be used to determine the rise and fall of states, then they should have application to all sorts of endeavors. During the Han dynasty yin–yang theory was used to explain natural phenomena, human activities, health, and wealth. Besides the conquest cycle for the five phases, there is a cycle of generation in which earth grows wood, wood fuels fire, fire’s ash produces earth, earth produces metal, and...

Belarus

Belarus   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,177 words
Illustration(s):
2

...elements of a command economy. Almost 40 per cent of industrial output still comes from state-owned enterprises and most of the rest from enterprises that are effectively under state control. Over 75 per cent of the banking industry is state-owned, and in all sectors, private business still plays a small part, and will continue to do so unless major economic reform is undertaken. Agriculture, too, is still mostly a state activity. Small farms have proliferated since independence but most output still comes from state and collective farms, the majority of...

South and Central Asia

South and Central Asia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...out in stark contrast with the rest of the world. For though the world cycles of Hinduism are subdivided in four yugas or ages, not unlike the Greco-Roman ages of gold, silver, brass, and iron, they follow each other in the apparently endless stream of time. The wheel of birth and death, reincarnation, encompasses the individual, the species, the social structure, the planet, the gods, the universe: it is the timescale of Nature herself. Endless, irreversible, unquenchable are the processes of alteration and change. The cycle of emanation, fruition,...

University Education

University Education   Reference library

Qiang ZHA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...98/5 were initially nine in number and have expanded to thirty-nine in 2009 . The country’s two top universities, Peking University and Tsinghua University, are exclusively funded by the central government (getting ¥1.8 billion each for the first three-year cycle of the program), while the rest are funded by the Ministry of Education with matching funds from multiple sources at lower levels. The top echelon universities of the system enjoy significant advantages from the extra resources provided under the elite-university development projects and carry...

Food Reform Movements

Food Reform Movements   Reference library

Nicolas Larchet

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Reform Movements Social historians have defined two cycles of American history characterized by an efflorescence of social movements aiming to reform both the individual and the society at large: the Jacksonian Era, from the 1830s to the 1850s, and the Progressive Era, from the 1890s to the 1910s. The reform impulse thrived wherever there was a perceived vice, abuse, or corruption of industrial civilization that needed to be changed, corrected, or improved. Studies of “antebellum” and “progressive” reforms have thus been made across a very broad spectrum of...

Disasters

Disasters   Reference library

John C. HORGAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...in the eighteenth century a famine relief system that worked quite well and underpinned the legitimacy of the Qing dynasty. However, by the nineteenth century people began to sense that the government was no longer capable of caring for its people because of the continuous cycles of flood and famine. Adding to the government’s problems in providing relief were bad roads, poor transportation systems, insufficient amounts of relief aid, and corruption. The government also resorted to using the army to massacre peasants attempting to flee rural areas to...

Ethnic Foods

Ethnic Foods   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Americans and later immigrant groups, ethnic restaurants are often a reserve of ethnic dishes that are no longer made at home, usually because they require too much labor. Ethnic restaurants provide more established immigrant groups a place in which to celebrate life-cycle events with ethnic feasts. In addition, seasonal and festival dishes modified to suit American meal patterns in public restaurants may come to signify group identity (more than their original seasonal meaning) at a later date. Thus a dish such as spaghetti and meatballs, featuring...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,185 words

...given some analytical purchase by being organized—in the first instance at least—around the cyclical nature of economic activity. Capitalist economies—of which the United States is exemplary—tend to move in cycles of what is popularly known as “boom and bust.” In a more academic parlance this is termed the “business cycle,” and it has tended to take a six to ten year period to move through the stages of first an expansion of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy...

Social Protection for Informal-sector Workers

Social Protection for Informal-sector Workers   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Housing and basic services like water, sanitation, and electricity is yet another area of social protection where organizations of informal workers have broken new ground. Since informal workers cannot always be organized on the basis of one trade, the alternative is to organize them in their own neighbourhoods, and around basic needs like housing, water, and sanitation. In Ahmedabad, informal workers joined hands with the local municipal authorities to develop a programme aimed at transforming urban neighbourhoods by providing basic amenities: water,...

Economics

Economics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,050 words

...2000. Considers how morality can influence long-term business cycles and microeconomic and macroeconomic issues including public finance. El-Ashker, Ahmed , and Rodney Wilson . Islamic Economics: A Short History . Leiden2006. Examines Islamic economic thought since the time of the Prophet, with a focus on the role of the state in economic management. Iqbal, Munawar . Distributive Justice and Need Fulfilment in an Islamic Economy . Leicester, 1988. Considers issues of poverty, equity, and basic needs in Islamic societies. Khan, M. Fahim . Essays in Islamic...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,916 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hashemite authorities in Jordan. The PNA, under the leadership of Fatah leader Yasir Arafat, won out and the Muslim identity of the political institutions of the PNA was established. The Basic Law of the PNA underwrites the Muslim identity of this proto-state institution by providing for sharīʿah courts to address the realm of personal status issues. Article 4 of the Basic Law also declares that Islam is the official religion of Palestine and due respect should be accorded to other religions. The laws of Islam are also the basis for Palestinian law under the...

Financial Industry

Financial Industry   Reference library

James Kwak

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,233 words

...of Insurance Commissioners, by coordinating activities among state regulators, has helped to reduce some of the potential problems of regulatory fragmentation. Political Influence and Deregulation. Since 1980 , the financial sector has been a powerful force in American politics and has benefited from a succession of industry-friendly policies in Washington . Channels of Influence. The financial/insurance/real estate sector has been the top financial contributor to electoral campaigns in every election cycle for which the Center for Responsive Politics has...

Climate Change

Climate Change   Reference library

David Coates

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,696 words

...scientists from ninety-five countries warned that as much as two-thirds of the world’s resources are currently being depleted by human activity. That activity “is putting such a strain on the natural functions of the Earth,” the report concluded, “that the ability of the planet’s ecosystems to sustain future development can no longer be taken for granted.” The study concluded with what it called a “stark warning” that basic ecosystems are being irretrievably damaged ( Radford , 2005 ), a warning echoed in the later World Wildlife Fund (WWF) report, “The...

African Languages and Literatures

African Languages and Literatures   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,130 words

...audience. Oral Literature. There is also a tradition of unwritten vernacular Islamic literature in Fulfulde and particularly in Hausa. This consists of oral versions, often highly localized, of major Islamic folkloric cycles such as the romance of Banū Hilāl, the saga of Sayf ibn Dhī Yazan, and the Islamic version of the Alexander cycle. The Maqāmāt stories and the classical Arabic collection Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʿ are also common sources for oral tales. This oral literature appears mainly to have been acquired by contacts with popular Cairene Muslim...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
20,911 words
Illustration(s):
1

...birth of the prophet Muḥammad, the mevlûd in Turkey, while men predominate in activities that take place in mosques. Rather than seeing the mevlûd as primarily a women's activity, it is best to see it as complementary to mosque activities and an integral element of the way Islam is understood locally and practiced by both women and men acting as households. Ritual and Community. Popular elaboration of ritual also distinguishes communities within the Muslim world. The ritual cycle of mourning for the betrayal of the Prophet's grandson Ḥusayn ( d. 680 )...

Mosque

Mosque   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
18,226 words
Illustration(s):
5

...niche), the minbar (pulpit), and the minaret, have come to be associated with a mosque, the only essential element consists of a suitable empty space allowing for the regular performance of private and common prayer. Other possible activities related to education, legal procedures, counseling, conflict resolution, life-cycle celebrations, public communication, political mobilization, entertainment, lodging, and the provision of welfare assistance, follow from this cultic raison d ’être . This combination of ceremonial and practical usages centered in or...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
13,377 words
Illustration(s):
7

...spiraled minaret on Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn's mosque linked that structure with the extraordinary spiraled towers the ʿAbbāsid caliphs built in Samarra in the ninth century. The most ubiquitous basic form, a tapering, rounded shaft, is found throughout Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan. Ruling dynasties modified the proportions of this basic form, varying its number of balconies and their placement, and its materiality and surface ornamentation. The minarets of Ṣafavid Isfahan are similar yet recognizably different from those of...

Islam

Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
46,709 words
Illustration(s):
19

...heads of religion in those states that were not under direct rule, but this concession was so heavily regulated as to render it nugatory. Islam was in fact reduced from an essential of the state, its basic foundation, to mere individual belief. As though this were not enough, the religion itself became subject to government fiat at a very basic level. The respective colonial bureaucracies so regulated many of the fundamental institutions of Islam that even today it is impossible, or very difficult, to see Islam except in the terms imposed then. For...

Sociology of music

Sociology of music   Reference library

John Shepherd and Kyle Devine

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,553 words

...Marx's was critical, understanding tension and conflict as the basic engines of social process, as well as deeply historical, with a driving vision of the redress of social injustice. Nevertheless, these sociologies shared two important characteristics: they assumed the priority of society over the individual, and they were concerned with uncovering and understanding dynamics considered basic to social process. Weber's sociology, by contrast, was motivated less by a desire to provide a basic explanation for the dynamics of social process than to understand...

European American music

European American music   Reference library

Philip V. Bohlman, Stephen Erdely, Leon Janikian, Christina Jaremko, Ain Haas, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Mark Levy, Philip V. Bohlman, Robert C. Metil, Jesse A. Johnston, Julien Olivier, Stephen D. Winick, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Stephen d. Winick, Philip V. Bohlman, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Stephen Erdely, Lynn M. Hooker, Mick Moloney, Stephen D. Winick, Marcello Sorce Keller, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Katherine Brucher, Carol Silverman, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Chris Goertzen, Mark Forry, Janet Sturman, Philip V. Bohlman, Marcello Sorce Keller, Robert B. Klymasz, and Denis Hlynka

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
33,627 words
Illustration(s):
6

...for Bulgarian young adults have developed in several cities, independent of church- or community-sponsored activities. Rather than dancing to live music at a community event, in these groups dancing is done to recorded music, as an aerobic activity/class in a dance studio. The dances are usually taught by graduates from one of the Bulgarian state-sponsored choreography schools. This phenomenon of folk dancing to recorded music, as an aerobic activity, has also arisen in Bulgaria recently. 7. Czech and Slovak American music. The history of Czech American and...

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