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Overview

basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Patriarchy/Kyriarchy

Patriarchy/Kyriarchy   Reference library

Deborah W. Rooke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,579 words

...and equally capable of undertaking strenuous physical activity, many modern paradigms distinguish emphatically between men and women and form the basis of human socialization from birth. These paradigms are patriarchal in that they conceive of men as physically, intellectually, and socially dominant and women as more delicate, less capable, and made for childbearing and supporting roles. Sadly, advances in biological knowledge have had little effect on deep-rooted, prejudicial ideas about women’s basic inferiority to men, and it is this witting or unwitting...

Male-Female Sexuality

Male-Female Sexuality   Reference library

Rhiannon Graybill, Giulia Sissa, Bradford A. Kirkegaard, Yii-Jan Lin, Tirzah Meacham, and Kathy L. Gaca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,472 words

...In all human societies, men exchange women. Marriage is a basic factor of civilization. Kinship systems regulate the formation of households, and the creation of bonds of alliance and affinity. In the fictional society projected by the epics, sexuality between women and men provides a unique source of narrative developments and powerful characters. Since this kind of intercourse results in procreation, it brings to life generations of gods, human beings, demigods, and heroes. Since this sexual activity has to be disciplined and ritualized through marriage, the...

Heteronormativity/Heterosexism

Heteronormativity/Heterosexism   Reference library

Teresa J. Hornsby

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,432 words

...gender, exists as a grid); and upon this illusion of two and opposing genders rests heteronormativity, or what Butler refers to as “the heterosexual matrix.” Butler writes, “The institution of compulsory and naturalized heterosexuality requires and regulates gender as a binary relation in which the masculine term is differentiated from a feminine term, and this differentiation is accomplished through the practices of heterosexual desire” ( Butler, 1990 , pp. 22–23). All power rests upon this construct: as the designations “male” or “female” become...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...the domestic gods (the Lares, protectors of the family, and the Penates, guardians of the storehouse) and performing rituals connected to the life cycle (e.g., birth, marriage, death) and ancestor worship. Women too were active in attending to the religious life of the domus : they decorated the hearth with garlands, maintained the supplies of the storehouse ( penus ), prepared the materials used in ritual activities, and tended the hearth fire (responsibilities that mimicked those of the state’s Vestal Virgins). There is also evidence of women joining their...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...activity that is considered a violation of the rights or honor of a male who has authority over her, whether husband or father, it is labeled as sexual promiscuity ( znh ) in biblical texts. As Phyllis Bird has demonstrated, the basic meaning of the root znh is “to engage in sexual relations outside of or apart from marriage” ( 1989 , pp. 75–80). Thus znh covers all instances of sexual intercourse in which there is an absence of a marriage bond between otherwise acceptable partners, including adultery, premarital sex, and the licit sexual activities of...

Imagery, Gendered

Imagery, Gendered   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Goldstein, Ken Stone, Julia M. O’Brien, Carole R. Fontaine, Greg Carey, Michal Beth Dinkler, and Susan Grove Eastman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,610 words

... 10—30 , showing many shared affinities with female characterization found in the rest of the Bible. Some of the characterizations are positive: the sages knew fully well that without the significant participation of women in the economic life of the family, no man or male organization could expect to succeed ( Prov 18:22 , 19:14 ; cf. 11:16 , 22 ; 12:4 ; 14:1 ). Village economies were based on subsistence agriculture, where women’s work in the “maintenance” activities of production (food, fabrication of textiles, and progeny) and consumption (food...

Sexual Violence

Sexual Violence   Reference library

Hilary Lipka, Harold C. Washington, Susan Deacy, Fiona McHardy, John W. Marshall, Marianne Blickenstaff, Mika Ahuvia, and Joy A. Schroeder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,730 words

...for use value and ktasthai [from ktaomai ] procuring or gaining from use. Whether Paul is referring to a person or masturbation is unclear, but the instrumental vision of sexual activity is plainly evident. Such utilitarian understanding of sexual activity abets the integration of sex and violence in Roman society. Romans and Greeks characteristically envisioned sexual activity as occurring in relationships of differential power. Conversely, power relations were also envisioned in sexual terms. Thus violence in the exercise of power was frequently sexual....

Antebellum Reform

Antebellum Reform   Reference library

Julie Holcomb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the early nineteenth century, Sunday schools, for example, were opened in larger cities such as New York and Philadelphia . These privately funded schools were open only on Sundays, when the factories were closed, and offered a basic education in reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. By 1827 , Sunday schools provided basic education to two hundred thousand American children. In contrast, the children of the elite were educated in private academies or were taught at home by tutors. Despite these early attempts, teaching quality was uneven and student...

Islam and Women

Islam and Women   Reference library

Aisha Musa, Marit Tjomsland, Farkhanda Zia, and Natana J. DeLong-Bas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
9,672 words

...these conditions is arbitration that includes representatives of both the husband and the wife ( 4:35 ). Men are prohibited from taking back the dower and from treating their wives harshly ( 4:19–25 ). Another safeguard for women is the mandatory waiting period of three menstrual cycles before a divorce is final. In case of pregnancy, the divorce is not final until the woman gives birth. During the waiting period, the husband must provide support and lodging for the wife ( 65:2 ). After a divorce, a father is required to support his children, even if they live...

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