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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,144 words

... is given some analytical purchase by being organized —in the first instance at least—around the cyclical nature of economic activity. Capitalist economies—of which the US is exemplary—tend to move in cycles of what is popularly known as “boom and bust.” In a more academic parlance this is termed the “business cycle,” and it has tended to take a six to ten-year period to move through the stages of first an expansion of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy (or...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,185 words

...given some analytical purchase by being organized—in the first instance at least—around the cyclical nature of economic activity. Capitalist economies—of which the United States is exemplary—tend to move in cycles of what is popularly known as “boom and bust.” In a more academic parlance this is termed the “business cycle,” and it has tended to take a six to ten year period to move through the stages of first an expansion of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy...

Financial Industry

Financial Industry   Reference library

James Kwak

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,223 words

...of Insurance Commissioners, by coordinating activities among state regulators, has helped to reduce some of the potential problems of regulatory fragmentation. Political Influence and Deregulation. Since 1980 , the financial sector has been a powerful force in American politics and has benefited from a succession of industry-friendly policies in Washington. Channels of influence. The financial/insurance/real estate sector has been the top financial contributor to electoral campaigns in every election cycle for which the Center for Responsive Politics has...

Financial Industry

Financial Industry   Reference library

James Kwak

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,233 words

...of Insurance Commissioners, by coordinating activities among state regulators, has helped to reduce some of the potential problems of regulatory fragmentation. Political Influence and Deregulation. Since 1980 , the financial sector has been a powerful force in American politics and has benefited from a succession of industry-friendly policies in Washington . Channels of Influence. The financial/insurance/real estate sector has been the top financial contributor to electoral campaigns in every election cycle for which the Center for Responsive Politics has...

Climate Change

Climate Change   Reference library

David Coates

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,696 words

...scientists from ninety-five countries warned that as much as two-thirds of the world’s resources are currently being depleted by human activity. That activity “is putting such a strain on the natural functions of the Earth,” the report concluded, “that the ability of the planet’s ecosystems to sustain future development can no longer be taken for granted.” The study concluded with what it called a “stark warning” that basic ecosystems are being irretrievably damaged ( Radford , 2005 ), a warning echoed in the later World Wildlife Fund (WWF) report, “The...

Development and Underdevelopment

Development and Underdevelopment   Reference library

Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,332 words

...or economic fields in which nonmarket institutions would be badly needed to supplement what the markets can do.” Sen is quite unapologetic concerning the state's provision of basic social services. He writes that “the provision of basic education, the presence of elementary medical facilities, the availability of resources (such as land) that can be crucial to some economic activities (such as agriculture) call for appropriate public policies (involving schooling, health care, land reform and so on).” Dependency and Underdevelopment. Strong approval for the...

Democracy, the Limits of Liberal

Democracy, the Limits of Liberal   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,862 words

...of cooperation and its requirements. It is more sensible since we are all engaged in cooperative endeavors, some of which we don't dare imagine ourselves living without. With cooperative activity as the lens through which we consider improvements and innovations, the status of unobstructed volition is demoted to that of an instrument. In addition, with cooperation as the basic value, rights and justice will no longer seem extraneous, and hence easily ignored. In giving importance to cooperation, there is no need to reject individual liberty; rather it comes to...

Arms Control

Arms Control   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,705 words

...concern with nuclear weapons, the theory did not rest on a thorough analysis of parallel ideas and previous experience with arms control in the prenuclear era, and to this day no comprehensive history of arms control has been written. Arms control measures can be unilateral (i.e., steps to prevent accidental or unauthorized firing of one's nuclear weapons), bilateral, or multilateral. Arms control can develop informal agreements or negotiated treaties. It can take effect at any stage in the life cycle of weapons and forces: development, deployment,...

Entitlements, The Future of

Entitlements, The Future of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,037 words

...technology and aging of the society, two of the most common explanations. Between 1983 and 1993 , Medicare expenditures rose less rapidly than the rest of the medical economy. They did so in part because of bargaining over price on the physician side and through the diagnosis-related payment for hospitals. But in the last two and a half years, Medicare has been rising at about 10 percent per year when the rest of the medical economy has been rising between 3 to 5 percent per year. We need to worry about that, but not under the guise of thinking that there is...

240 Years of Foreign Policy Moods in a Democracy Which Grew into a Superpower: What it Means for IR Theory

240 Years of Foreign Policy Moods in a Democracy Which Grew into a Superpower: What it Means for IR Theory   Reference library

Jack E. Holmes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,608 words

...and World. Gordon, B. (1969). Toward disengagement in Asia: A strategy for American foreign policy . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Goldstein, J. S. (1988). Long cycles: Prosperity and war in the modern age . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Haass, R. N. (2014). Foreign policy begins at home: The case for putting America’s house in order . New York: Basic Books. Haass, R. N. (2017). A world in disarray: American foreign policy and the crisis of the old world order . New York: Penguin Press. Hartz, L. (1955). The liberal tradition...

Systemic Leadership, Energy Considerations, and the Leadership Long-Cycle Perspective

Systemic Leadership, Energy Considerations, and the Leadership Long-Cycle Perspective   Reference library

William R. Thompson and Leila Zakhirova

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,070 words
Illustration(s):
4

...global system. More likely, global politics would be governed by the actors who involved themselves in global activities. These actors, moreover, were not necessarily the ones that were most wealthy and powerful at the regional level. A distinction between regional and global elites had to be made. Leadership long-cycle analysis did this by positing that the minimal threshold for global actors involved the capability to engage in global activities (at least 10% of the pool of global reach resources that were largely naval after 1494 ) and evidence that...

World System History

World System History   Reference library

Robert A. Denemark

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,279 words

...of a laboratory, such differences cannot be ignored. But what constitutes a repetitive process or cycle, as opposed to a random distribution of activities? Some of the literature concerning cycles seeks to affix a specific timeframe to such phenomena, while other work suggests that social processes may play out at different speeds given differences in population density, communications technology, and other variables. Our desire to identify cycles might also lead to problems. A cyclical view of human existence dominated premodern conceptions of social...

Financial Crises

Financial Crises   Reference library

Candace Archer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,177 words

...long-term cyclical behavior of debt. An exemplary study was published by Christian Suter ( 1992 ) who examined debt cycles from 1820 onward and correlated peripheral debt to both secular trends and long waves. He theorized that the accumulation of debt in peripheral states was related to Kondratieff growth cycles, Kuznets cycles, and world leadership cycles. Core boom phases led to capital exports, which correlated to upswings in the cycles. Default was correlated with contraction phases ( Suter 1992 ). These sorts of analyses about the debt crisis...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

Beverley Milton-Edwards and Abdel-Fattah Mady

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,759 words

...Hashemite authorities in Jordan. The PNA, under the leadership of Fatah leader Yasir Arafat, won out, and the Muslim identity of the political institutions of the PNA was established. The Basic Law of the PNA underwrites the Muslim identity of this protostate institution by providing for Sharīʿah courts to address the realm of personal status issues. Article 4 of the Basic Law also declares that Islam is the official religion of Palestine and that due respect should be accorded to other religions. The laws of Islam are also the basis for Palestinian law under...

World System in the Information Age

World System in the Information Age   Reference library

Joachim K. Rennstich

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,068 words

...of a new long cycle of global system development. Spar ( 2001 ) connects the ventures of Portuguese explorers of the fifteenth century to the development of the telegraph and radio in the middle of the nineteenth century, and the advent of satellite television and the internet in the twentieth century. She identifies a common dynamic in the development of new information systems, with bursts of innovation at the beginning, creating new commercial opportunities, creating a gap between economic, social, and technological activity and political control,...

Defining and Operationalizing Context Through a Structural Political Geography for International Relations

Defining and Operationalizing Context Through a Structural Political Geography for International Relations   Reference library

Colin Flint and Raymond J. Dezzani

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,087 words

...that incorporates the choices and actions of states with a conceptualization of structure and agency that is nondeterministic. Simple Beginnings So what is context? We will begin with two basic concepts: site and situation. Site identifies the physical attributes of a location, and situation “refers to the location of a place relative to other places and human activities” ( Knox & Marston, 1998 , pp. 33–34). The general concepts of site and situation have particular expression for world politics through Cohen’s definition of geopolitics “as the analysis of...

Evolutionary Systems Theory

Evolutionary Systems Theory   Reference library

Joachim K. Rennstich

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,992 words

...Thousand? London: Routledge. Freeman, C. (1987) Technical Innovation, Diffusion, and Long Cycles of Economic Development. In T. Vasko (ed.) The Long Wave Debate: Selected Papers . Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 295–309. Freeman, C. , and Louçã, F. (2001) As Time Goes by: From the Industrial Revolutions to the Information Revolution . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Freeman, C. , and Perez, C. (1988) Structural Crises of Adjustment: Business Cycles and Investment Behaviour. In G. Dosi , C. Freeman , R.R. Nelson , G. Silverberg , and L.L.G....

Nuclear Proliferation and Non-Proliferation

Nuclear Proliferation and Non-Proliferation   Reference library

Jacques E.C. Hymans

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,082 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the activities of such groups as well as the advent of globalized proliferation networks and the widespread acceptance of the Cohen–Frankel “opaque proliferation” concept, international confidence in the non-proliferation regime today is at an all-time low ( Montgomery 2005 ). One might retort that states nevertheless appear to have retained confidence in the NPT regime, because after all, they have not abandoned it. But this pattern of continued adhesion may in fact simply reveal the inadequacy of the most basic assumption upon which Dai rests her...

Diplomacy and Intelligence

Diplomacy and Intelligence   Reference library

John D. Stempel

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,075 words

... 2005 ). This did not stop spying, but hastened the creation of separate intelligence services and loosened diplomatic control over such activities in many democratic states. An excellent contemporary study of morality in espionage and how it affects diplomacy, by former CIA officer and now professor James Olson , updates the triangular discussion of diplomacy–morality–espionage ( Olson 2006 ). Given the rest of the world’s reticence to discuss this kind of subject, it will be interesting to see how much further it will develop. With terrorism taking...

The International Society – World Society Distinction

The International Society – World Society Distinction   Reference library

John Williams

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,734 words

...of classical Realist theory ( Lebow 2003 ). Wight’s ( 1966 ) famous analysis of the poverty of international theory, in comparison to the richness of theorizing politics within the political community, rested on a claim about the “recurrence and repetition” of the international arena rooted in a tragic inability to break a cycle of violence and insecurity. This is not for want of trying, but the means available, particularly the tendency for international societies to succumb to efforts at creating universal empires (Wight 1977:43–5), produce...

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