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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Strikes

Strikes   Reference library

Josiah Bartlett Lambert and Joseph A. McCartin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
13,783 words

...employers’ bluff and strike. Neoclassical economists have also theorized about fluctuations in strike activity. As early as 1921 , Alvin Hansen proposed that the level of strike activity follows the business cycle: from 1881 to 1897—a period of long-term deflation—strike rates varied inversely with the business cycle, as workers struck in reaction to wage cuts. Between 1898 and 1919—a period of rising prices—strike rates followed the business cycle, as workers struck aggressively to raise their wages. Albert Rees argued that the increase in strike rates...

Social Protection for Informal-sector Workers

Social Protection for Informal-sector Workers   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Housing and basic services like water, sanitation, and electricity is yet another area of social protection where organizations of informal workers have broken new ground. Since informal workers cannot always be organized on the basis of one trade, the alternative is to organize them in their own neighbourhoods, and around basic needs like housing, water, and sanitation. In Ahmedabad, informal workers joined hands with the local municipal authorities to develop a programme aimed at transforming urban neighbourhoods by providing basic amenities: water,...

Trade Policy, Federal

Trade Policy, Federal   Reference library

Judith Stein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
10,421 words

...Often firms dump when supply exceeds demand, because firms need to make regular payments on heavy fixed costs. The Europeans dumped steel in the U.S. market at the end of the 1970s for that reason. Sometimes nations dump preemptively, especially when new products have short life cycles and the development of subsequent items depends on experience with previous products and acquired skills. The Japanese semiconductor industry used such practices to eliminate American and European producers. Countervailing duties against foreign-government subsidies that promoted...

Anthropometric History

Anthropometric History   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,886 words
Illustration(s):
4

...who grew under good nutritional circumstances have nearly identical stature. Height at a particular age reflects an individual's history of net nutrition, or diet minus claims on the diet made by work (or physical activity) and disease. Metabolic requirements for basic functions, such as breathing and blood circulation while at rest, also make claims on the diet. The synergy between malnutrition and illness may further reduce the nutrition left over for growth. Poorly nourished children are more susceptible to infection, which reduces the body's...

Veblen, Thorstein Bunde

Veblen, Thorstein Bunde (1857–1929)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,878 words

...have to submit and adapt to the rules of business enterprises. Many phenomena such as large corporations, economic change, business cycles, unions, imperialism, and irrational behavior were not incorporated into orthodox economic theories because they were considered abnormal phenomena. For Karl Marx's economics, Veblen thinks that it was based on the dialectic whose most of its laws are grounded in the condition of rest, or equilibrium. Marx argues that the class struggle is the driving force of history, where the proletariat are united according to class...

Consumption

Consumption   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,768 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of a highly ordered civil society and to indulge the baser instincts, which had been suppressed throughout the rest of the year. Effects of Economic Growth Economic growth, first experienced in the northwestern European nations (England and the Low Countries), totally transformed the environment in which the populace both worked and played. Improved agricultural supply systems allowed those engaged in industrial-commercial activity, to divorce themselves from the round of rustic pursuits and assume a functionally separate identity from the farmer and...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,848 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in income and growing marketization (which intensify urban activities), has been steepening hierarchy in size distributions. This has often taken the form of primacy— with the largest city towering over the rest and many small places losing their centrality. In actuality, a central-place system will probably move toward a steeper size distribution than the rank-size rule predicts. Many cities and groups of cities do not fit the central-place model, neither in the nature of their activities nor in their spatial groupings and size distributions. They can,...

Sudan

Sudan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,724 words
Illustration(s):
2

...this trade tended to be centered on luxury goods, such as kola nuts, gold dust, salt, and slaves. However, in many cases bulky goods, including agricultural products, traveled long distances by taking advantage of nomadic transhumance cycles. Until the seventeenth century, the majority of West African economic activity was centered in the desert-savanna region rather than in the coastal zone. The “desert-side” sector was an engine of economic growth that linked North Africa, communities in the Sahara, states of the savanna, and the forest region in a...

Construction Industry

Construction Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...importance of cash flow. Such fluctuations lead to insolvencies in construction companies. Seasonal fluctuations . Seasonal fluctuations are caused by weather patterns and by the demands of other activities, like agriculture, especially in less-developed countries. Regardless of economic cycles, the construction industry has always been subject to seasonal cycles. Fewer customers want to build in the winter than in the summer. Moreover, certain construction operations are susceptible to inclement weather, making construction longer and more expensive in the...

Hospitality Industry

Hospitality Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,063 words
Illustration(s):
2

...quantifiers. As Pope points out in the British context, however, basic employment statistics do indicate the importance of an industry whose workforce grew by nearly 60 percent, despite the interwar depression, between 1924 and 1938 , reaching nearly half a million in the latter year. It employed far more workers than, for example, iron and steel, shipbuilding, and cotton, and in 1938 it employed over 100,000 more than the obvious key growth sector of aircraft, motor vehicle, and cycle construction and repair. Its importance has continued to increase as...

American Indian Economies

American Indian Economies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,159 words
Illustration(s):
3

...concerns the status of obsidian goods in the Maya region. In the Classic period ( 200–900 ce ) obsidian was a scarce luxury, often used in ritual activities. In Postclassic times ( 900–1520 ce ) commercial exchange intensified, the supply of obsidian increased, and the cost of obsidian declined as it became more of a necessity than a luxury to Maya households. Another case of long-term change was an agrarian cycle in Aztec central Mexico. At the start of the Aztec period (ca. 1100 ce ) populations were low. Increased rainfall coupled with an abundance of...

Poland

Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,674 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to some extent retail trade by the state and cooperatives began in 1947 . Collectivization of agriculture started in 1948 , but until its cessation in 1956 it managed to embrace only 10 percent of the land. In the years from 1945 to 1989 the Polish economy followed quasi “cycles.” Directly after the Communist takeover (in 1945–1946 ) and just after subsequent changes of the ruling blocs (in October 1956 , December 1970 , and December 1980 ), economic policy focused on the improvement of living conditions. Emphasis on consumer goods industries,...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,930 words
Illustration(s):
2

...easily integrated into the empire. A series of late devaluations of Roman coinage led to an empire-wide currency crisis, and the response by the emperor Diocletian was to regulate prices (the so-called Edict of Maximum Prices), by 301 ce . Then in 313 ce , a new 15-year tax cycle was introduced. The key to understanding the change in the economic structure was the growth of the Christian church in both political and economic power in those years. The emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity in 312 ce and his reorganization of the economy...

China

China   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,263 words
Illustration(s):
2

...open to debate, it is much easier to provide a snapshot of China's basic economic structure and endowment circa the early 1930s ( 1931–1936 ), owing largely to the work of Ta-Chung Liu and Kung-chia Yeh (1965) . At that time China was still a predominantly agrarian economy with a population of between 500 and 550 million people. Nearly two-thirds of its GNP originated in agriculture, and probably three-quarters of its labor force derived all or most of its income from agriculture. The rest came from earnings in traditional nonagricultural sidelines, such as...

Health Industry

Health Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,197 words
Illustration(s):
5

...foci in the 1820s enabled satisfactory objectives to be made for the first time. These microscopes were fundamental to developments in both medical research and diagnosis, and remain essential to these activities in the twenty-first century. As knowledge of disease processes accumulated during the nineteenth century, the microscope became one of the basic tools of the diagnostic process, whether in detecting the causal bacteria of diseases such as diphtheria and tuberculosis, or in the study of diseased body tissue. By 1900, modernizing hospitals throughout...

Income Maintenance

Income Maintenance   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,565 words
Illustration(s):
1

...innovation in public assistance during the later nineteenth century was the unemployment benefit, in various forms, which was also taken up slowly and unevenly. This was a prime objective of labor-movement demands, to protect workers' living standards during lows in the economic cycle over which they had no control. Trade unions developed their own funds, but in 1914 unions covered only a minority of manual workers in all countries. By 1908 , such funds became publicly subsidized in Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Norway, Denmark, and Italy. From the...

Silk Industry

Silk Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,966 words
Illustration(s):
2

...had to leave their families and live in dormitories. Silk merchants turned into fulltime industrialists, who purchased cocoons, had them processed, and sold raw silk or silk yarns to weaving firms. These changes, however, did not alter the basic characteristics of reeling. It remained a labor-intensive (compared with the rest of manufacturing) and highly competitive industry. In fact, the reeling equipment was highly divisible, and, beyond a quite low threshold, did not entail any economies of scale. The investment was correspondingly small, and it was...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,428 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as to the rest of the European Caribbean. Trade with Africa had, however, only limited effects on France. Its impact was largely confined to French merchants engaged in Asian trade, the source of the textiles that made up at least half of the cargoes used to buy slaves, and to the area around Nantes, far and away the premier slaving port and home to most manufacturers of “Negro cloths,” cottons that imitated (poorly, in the eyes of many disdainful African consumers) Asian fabrics. As for the consequences for Africa of trade with France (and the rest of Europe),...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,686 words
Illustration(s):
4

...lead). Many of the craftsmen in Novgorod lived in special residential compounds (in Slavic dvory ) of the urban elite, producing goods to order from the merchants. In medieval Russia, the basic economic and social unit was the dvor (a “family compound” or “homestead”). It functioned as both home and industrial workshop, with extended plots of land for growing basic foods. The structures of the Russian urban economies, not in only the major cities of Kiev and Novgorod but also in the smaller towns—Chernigov, Ryazan, Smolensk, Yaroslavl—consisted of blocks...

National Income Accounts

National Income Accounts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
18,694 words
Illustration(s):
3

...on, for example, farms. Still, according to the SNA, most activities outside markets—most importantly those in households—as well as illegal market activities remain largely unaccounted for. In a similar vein national balance sheets restrict themselves largely to assets that yield an annual return derived from its service flows. These definitions of the production and capital boundaries are an important limitation for historical economic research because of major shifts from nonmarket to market activities (and to a lesser extent also the other way around) over...

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