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Overview

basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Strikes

Strikes   Reference library

Josiah Bartlett Lambert and Joseph A. McCartin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
13,783 words

...employers’ bluff and strike. Neoclassical economists have also theorized about fluctuations in strike activity. As early as 1921 , Alvin Hansen proposed that the level of strike activity follows the business cycle: from 1881 to 1897—a period of long-term deflation—strike rates varied inversely with the business cycle, as workers struck in reaction to wage cuts. Between 1898 and 1919—a period of rising prices—strike rates followed the business cycle, as workers struck aggressively to raise their wages. Albert Rees argued that the increase in strike rates...

Trade Policy, Federal

Trade Policy, Federal   Reference library

Judith Stein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
10,421 words

...Often firms dump when supply exceeds demand, because firms need to make regular payments on heavy fixed costs. The Europeans dumped steel in the U.S. market at the end of the 1970s for that reason. Sometimes nations dump preemptively, especially when new products have short life cycles and the development of subsequent items depends on experience with previous products and acquired skills. The Japanese semiconductor industry used such practices to eliminate American and European producers. Countervailing duties against foreign-government subsidies that promoted...

Gilbreth, Frank Bunker

Gilbreth, Frank Bunker (1868–1924)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,405 words

...developed by August Dvorak ), the wrist rest, the shift-lock key and the copy holder. With no modern test instruments or detailed ergonomics studies, the Gilbreths were able to identify the best biomechanical abilities of the human form, and design tools and work to fit them. Frank Gilbreth also invented the process chart, a form of ‘macro-motion study’, whereby the manufacturing process was traced from raw materials to finished product. The process chart used symbols to characterize types of work activities, so that redundant or unnecessary steps could...

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