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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Population Growth and the Environment

Population Growth and the Environment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,227 words
Illustration(s):
1

...emissions of other greenhouse gases result from activities related to population size (such as agriculture, the source of a large fraction of methane and nitrous oxide emissions), population growth may exert a major influence on the buildup of greenhouse gases. Another measure of the impact of the global population on the environment is the fraction of the terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP, the basic energy supply of all terrestrial animals) directly consumed, co-opted, or eliminated by human activity. This figure is now an estimated 40 percent. Of...

Economic Conditions and Public Opinion on Climate Change

Economic Conditions and Public Opinion on Climate Change   Reference library

Salil Benegal and Lyle Scruggs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
10,072 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the economy. Impact of Business Cycle Fluctuations on Attitudes Toward Climate Change Several studies emphasize the effect of the business cycle on how people think about climate change. These studies have converged in agreement that increased state or national unemployment rates, or other indicators or reduced economic growth rates, are correlated with lower support for environmental policies and lower reported levels of concern and belief in climate change. Kahn and Kotchen ( 2011 ) examine Google search activity during the economic recession in the...

Climate

Climate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,896 words
Illustration(s):
3

...system in the western Pacific. This “oscillator” interacts with the rest of the global circulation, often altering it and causing extreme weather events in various parts of the world, including the United States. Understanding this phenomenon is important because being able to predict its onset could help us predict the occurrence of associated extreme weather events. Like global warming, ENSO is evident in global records. Another proposed oscillation is an 11-year and a 22-year sunspot cycle, but the available data do not convincingly demonstrate its...

Communicating about Climate Change with Policymakers

Communicating about Climate Change with Policymakers   Reference library

Ishani Mukherjee and Michael Howlett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...by Sabatier, “one of the basic strategies of any coalition is to manipulate the assignment of responsibilities in governmental programs so that units it controls have the most authority” ( 1987 , p. 664). For example, in discussing the perceptual divides that polarize the political debate about climate change in the United States, Nisbet ( 2009 ) discusses how powerful advocacy actors can frame the nature and consequences of climate change in contrasting ways—for example, how far and to what extent do human activities contribute to climate...

Media Coverage oF International Climate Summits and Negotiations

Media Coverage oF International Climate Summits and Negotiations   Reference library

Jens Wolling and Dorothee Arlt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...conference. Other relevant factors influencing the coverage are internal national political conflicts or vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Communication Activities of Civil Society Actors in the Context of Climate Summits Another relevant aspect that characterizes the coverage on the conferences is the consideration of political protests, positions of civil society, activities of social movements, and the representation of ethnic minorities. For example, Gunster and Fraser ( 2011 ) scrutinized how Canadian traditional mainstream and...

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Linda S. Prokopy, Wendy-Lin Bartels, Gary Burniske, and Rebecca Power

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Rasmussen, W. D. (1989). Taking the university to the people: Seventy-five years of cooperative extension . Ames: Iowa State University Press. Scoones, I. , & Toulmin, C. (1993). Socio-economic dimensions of nutrient cycling in agropastoral systems in dryland Africa. In J. C. Powell (Ed.), Livestock and sustainable nutrient cycling in mixed farming system . ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agphome/images/iclsd/documents/wk1_c26_gerard.pdf . Swanson, B. E. , & Davis, K. (2014). Status of agricultural...

Communicating Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience

Communicating Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience   Reference library

Susanne C. Moser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...that accomplish both mitigation and adaptation goals (e.g., green roofs, urban forestry, and blue carbon initiatives), giving growing confidence that concerns over having to choose between communicating mitigation versus communicating adaptation can be put to rest. What cannot be put to rest, however, is the critical importance of the emotional responses to climate change in communicating risks and adaptation ( Moser, 2007 ; Roeser, 2012 ). For many, the need to face up to the reality of (human-caused) climate change comes when climate change...

Adaptation

Adaptation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,613 words
Illustration(s):
3

...urgent and immediate needs with regard to adaptation to climate change. A key output from these NAPAs is a list of priority adaptation activities, whose further delay could lead to increased vulnerability or increased costs at a later stage. By 2009 , 39 LDCs had submitted their NAPAs to the UNFCCC. Projects identified in NAPAs cover a wide range of activities, including general capacity-building and awareness-raising activities, research and information, early warning systems, investment in changing resource management, institutional reform and regulation, and...

Communicating about Climate Change with Corporate Leaders and Stakeholders

Communicating about Climate Change with Corporate Leaders and Stakeholders   Reference library

Andrew J. Hoffman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
11,699 words
Illustration(s):
4

...upon” ( Gillings & Hagan-Lawson, 2014 , p. 2). The other eight are ocean acidification, ozone depletion, atmospheric aerosol loading, phosphorus and nitrogen cycles, global freshwater use, land system change, loss of biodiversity, and chemical pollution ( Gillings & Hagan-Lawson, 2014 ). Scientists believe that three have already been exceeded: climate change, biodiversity loss, and the nitrogen cycle ( Rockström et al., 2009 ). “Unless there is a global catastrophe such as a meteorite impact, world war or pandemic,” these planetary boundaries will continue...

Climate Change Communication and Indigenous Publics

Climate Change Communication and Indigenous Publics   Reference library

Candis Callison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...kinds of publics. Engaging with climate change for indigenous publics rests on differently configured and articulated ways of relating to the natural world. It is embedded in the “social situation” many indigenous people face with regard to their land and human rights as well as ongoing and historical ecological changes associated with climate change ( Errico, 2017 , p. 10). Indigenous communities are very likely to live in close and interdependent relationships with ecological cycles and systems, and as a result, will suffer disproportionately from the...

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands   Reference library

Art Dewulf, Daan Boezeman, and Martinus Vink

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,430 words
Illustration(s):
2

...levels. This meeting was covered widely in the press and engendered significant social media activity on climate change. As can be seen in Figure 1 , media attention to climate change was on the rise in 2015 and 2016 . Discussion: Cross-cutting Themes in Research on Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands Climate Change Framing and Agenda Setting The prominence of climate change as an issue on the public agenda has gone through multiple attention cycles, driven by issue competition, framing contests, and media logic ( Nisbet & Huge, 2007 )....

Climate Change Communication in Denmark

Climate Change Communication in Denmark   Reference library

Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...) the decision of the Bali Road Map ( 2007 ) and COP 15 ( 2009 ). Based on slightly different data, in terms of search terms and number of items, some researchers ( O. Danielsen, 2015a , pp. 192–193) have argued that this development corresponds to Anthony Downs’ Issue Attention Cycle ( Downs, 1972 ). Accordingly, early scientific discoveries prior to 1990 can be considered a “pre-problem stage” while “the alarmed discovery stage” coincides with the establishment of UNFCCC in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 . The “realizing the cost stage” ran from...

Linguistic Analysis in Climate Change Communication

Linguistic Analysis in Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Kjersti Fløttum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...( Koteyko et al., 2010 , p. 25). They identify three groups of compounds related to finance, lifestyle, and attitudes, including 34 compounds from “carbon tax” to “carbon diet” to “carbon sinner.” Adding a time perspective to the analysis, they also indicate a “life cycle” of carbon mitigation as a topic, divided into three phases: (a) the period between 1990 and 1999 with a focus on market and finance; (b) the 1999–2005 period characterized by the use of lifestyle compounds; and (c) the 2005–2008 period with the use of attitudinal...

Communicating about Solar Energy and Climate Change

Communicating about Solar Energy and Climate Change   Reference library

Tarla Rai Peterson and Cristi C. Horton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
17,689 words
Illustration(s):
4

...change and human activity may be inferred from several of the studies mentioned throughout this section, European Perceptions of Climate Change ( Steentjes et al., 2017 ) provides more detailed information that is especially relevant to those who consider energy system change as key to climate change mitigation. When asked their opinion about causes of climate change, 83% of respondents in Germany, 84% in the United Kingdom, and 91% in both France and Norway, reported that climate change was partially or completely caused by human activity (p. 19). Of direct...

cyclicity

cyclicity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,888 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and ‘greenhouse’ states. Second-order cycles may be driven by cycles of fast and slow mantle convection which regulate sea-floor spreading on a scale of 30 to 60 million years. Periods of Phanerozoic fast spreading are correlated with those of high magnetic field activity, which is also related to the vigour of mantle convection. When mantle activity is reduced, spreading is slower and there is a drop in sea level; magnetic polarity can be frequently reversed. There is much argument about the reality of these cycles, seemingly because they reveal an overall...

plate tectonics: the history of a paradigm

plate tectonics: the history of a paradigm   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...was generated; ocean trenches, where it was destroyed; and transform faults. The plates were thought to be about 100 km thick and to rest on a weak or plastic layer, the asthenosphere. On some plate surfaces there are the continents, not drifting but being moved passively as passengers on their host plates. During the late 1960s and 1970s the explanation of mountain-building (orogenic) cycles came to be attributed to activity along active continental plate margins or to continental collisions. Overthrusting, volcanism, and plutonic igneous intrusion were...

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