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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Slavery and the Slave Trade

Slavery and the Slave Trade   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,148 words

...persisted under different designations or through illicit activities, on what grounds can one say that slavery has effectively come to an end? If enslavement remains an ongoing concern in the absence of official recognition, on what grounds can one meaningfully distinguish “traditional” slavery from analogous forms of behavior? Once one accepts the basic proposition that legal abolition did not mark an effective end to slavery, one must also confront the more difficult task of specifying which activities are sufficiently similar to historical slave systems that...

South American Southern Cone

South American Southern Cone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,897 words

...the military to detain and try civilians suspected of engaging in subversive activities. When members of the legislature raised questions about restrictions on civil liberties and called for investigations into charges of human rights abuses, the military refused to cooperate and increasingly challenged legislative prerogatives. After a prolonged standoff between the military and the legislature, the military successfully pressured Bordaberry to suspend independent political activity and concentrate control of the government in military hands. On 27 June 1973 ...

Botswana and Lesotho

Botswana and Lesotho   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,886 words

...Change 1795–1940 . London: Athlone, 1970. Schapera, Isaac . The Tswana . London: International African Institute, 1953. Sheddick, Vernon George John . The Southern Sotho . London: International African Institute, 1953. Tarantola, Daniel . “ HIV Testing: Breaking the Deadly Cycle. ” Health and Human Rights 8, no. 2 (2005): 37–42. Thamae, Mabusetsa Lenka , and Lori Pottinger , eds. On the Wrong Side of Development: Lessons Learned from the Lesotho Highlands Water Project . Maseru, Lesotho: Transformation Resource Centre, 2006. United Nations Children's...

Torture

Torture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
21,128 words

...that the committee “shall notify the Government … of its intention to carry out a visit,” after which “it may at any time visit any place referred to in Article 2.” In practice the committee issues a list of the countries that it intends to visit as a part of its regular cycle of activities at the start of each year, and those countries are therefore put on notice to expect the committee. The committee then contacts the states concerned a few weeks before a visit, notifying the government of the dates and allowing for practical matters to be addressed. Shortly...

Haiti

Haiti   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,568 words

...services, corruption, a dysfunctional judicial system, discriminatory tax collection, environmental degradation, and abusive security forces are cited as contributing factors. Public sector hiring and promotion are often based on political loyalty rather than competence. Cycles of political and human rights crises alternating with brief periods of great hope for change have stifled the healing from trauma, and contributed to demoralization, internal displacement, and migration from Haiti. The absence of a secure and stable environment has discouraged...

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