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Overview

basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Food Reform Movements

Food Reform Movements   Reference library

Nicolas Larchet

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Reform Movements Social historians have defined two cycles of American history characterized by an efflorescence of social movements aiming to reform both the individual and the society at large: the Jacksonian Era, from the 1830s to the 1850s, and the Progressive Era, from the 1890s to the 1910s. The reform impulse thrived wherever there was a perceived vice, abuse, or corruption of industrial civilization that needed to be changed, corrected, or improved. Studies of “antebellum” and “progressive” reforms have thus been made across a very broad spectrum of...

Ethnic Foods

Ethnic Foods   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Americans and later immigrant groups, ethnic restaurants are often a reserve of ethnic dishes that are no longer made at home, usually because they require too much labor. Ethnic restaurants provide more established immigrant groups a place in which to celebrate life-cycle events with ethnic feasts. In addition, seasonal and festival dishes modified to suit American meal patterns in public restaurants may come to signify group identity (more than their original seasonal meaning) at a later date. Thus a dish such as spaghetti and meatballs, featuring...

malt

malt   Reference library

Thomas Kraus-Weyermann

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,140 words

...alpha- and beta-amylase activity. It is kept at that temperature for about an hour. This wet stewing ensures that enzymatic saccharification takes place inside each kernel. The stewed malt is then finished off in the kiln or it stays in the roaster for finishing. If it is finished in the kiln, it is subjected to a drying cycle at about 90°C (roughly 195°F), which causes the sugars to caramelize into hard, glassy, and unfermentable dextrins. If the stewed malt is finished in the roaster, on the other hand, it is subjected to a drying cycle at perhaps 200°C...

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