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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

South and Central Asia

South and Central Asia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...out in stark contrast with the rest of the world. For though the world cycles of Hinduism are subdivided in four yugas or ages, not unlike the Greco-Roman ages of gold, silver, brass, and iron, they follow each other in the apparently endless stream of time. The wheel of birth and death, reincarnation, encompasses the individual, the species, the social structure, the planet, the gods, the universe: it is the timescale of Nature herself. Endless, irreversible, unquenchable are the processes of alteration and change. The cycle of emanation, fruition,...

Food Reform Movements

Food Reform Movements   Reference library

Nicolas Larchet

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Reform Movements Social historians have defined two cycles of American history characterized by an efflorescence of social movements aiming to reform both the individual and the society at large: the Jacksonian Era, from the 1830s to the 1850s, and the Progressive Era, from the 1890s to the 1910s. The reform impulse thrived wherever there was a perceived vice, abuse, or corruption of industrial civilization that needed to be changed, corrected, or improved. Studies of “antebellum” and “progressive” reforms have thus been made across a very broad spectrum of...

Ethnic Foods

Ethnic Foods   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Americans and later immigrant groups, ethnic restaurants are often a reserve of ethnic dishes that are no longer made at home, usually because they require too much labor. Ethnic restaurants provide more established immigrant groups a place in which to celebrate life-cycle events with ethnic feasts. In addition, seasonal and festival dishes modified to suit American meal patterns in public restaurants may come to signify group identity (more than their original seasonal meaning) at a later date. Thus a dish such as spaghetti and meatballs, featuring...

Endurance

Endurance   Reference library

Lisa TOSCANO

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
3,481 words

...of the heart and lungs to take in and transport adequate amounts of oxygen to working muscles increases when one engages in activities such as running, walking or hiking, swimming, cycling, cross-country skiing, dancing, and endurance games and activities that are performed over long periods of time at a certain heart rate. Two Marine officer candidates take their turn at the endurance run during physical training at the Basic School for Marine officers at the Marine Corps Development and Education Command, June 1980 . National Archives. The key to...

Exercise and Health

Exercise and Health   Reference library

Becky CLARK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
4,073 words

...problems. Recommended Levels and Types of Exercise Physical activity and exercise do not need to be strenuous. WHO recommends thirty minutes of physical activity/exercise at a moderate intensity daily. Physical activity and exercise are measured by frequency, intensity (mild, moderate, strenuous), and duration (time/length). They can be aerobic and/or anaerobic in nature. This also includes weight-bearing exercises (e.g., free weights, machine weights, body weight). Endurance activities (e.g., cycling, walking, running, swimming) increase heart rate and...

Nutrition

Nutrition   Reference library

Ron MAUGHAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
3,459 words

...the additional nutrient requirements imposed by the training load. In sports involving prolonged strenuous exercise on a regular basis, participation has a significant effect on energy balance. The metabolic rate during running or cycling, for example, may be fifteen to twenty times the resting rate, and such levels of activity may be sustained for several hours by trained athletes. Evidence suggests that the metabolic rate may remain elevated for at least twelve and possibly up to twenty-four hours if the exercise is prolonged and close to the maximum...

Sports Medicine

Sports Medicine   Reference library

Alison W. WRYNN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
4,041 words

...concern among young children is the effect of activities such as weight training, competition-modified diets, and certain types of physical activities such as pitching mechanics or high-impact training. Although some forms of impact training are crucial in the development of optimal bone density, caution must be exercised to not cause injury. There is still a great deal of research that supports the contention that children between the ages of nine and fourteen should not be taught certain sport activities such as how to throw a curveball or a slider in...

Environment and Sports

Environment and Sports   Reference library

John BALE

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
3,627 words

...because different sports have different activity levels. For example, in swimming, the warmer the pool temperature, the less heat is dissipated. No heat would be lost at all if the water temperature was 37° C but considerable discomfort would result from swimming in such conditions. As far as performance is concerned, the optimum water temperature is between 20 and 34.5° C for short races and between 23 and 26° C for 1,500-meter races. High temperatures can be extremely hazardous in long-distance cycling and running events. The 1908 Olympic marathon...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
15,540 words
Illustration(s):
1

...may be obtained through some of the traditional myths, often expressed in song cycles. These include reference to affection, as well as physical satisfaction and mutual responsibility. The songs make explicit reference to circumcision rituals, to menstruation, semen, and to defloration. One ritualistic means of courtship is reported through the Golbourn Island song cycles ( Berndt 1976 ). In the songs, young girls engage in making figures out of string, the activity causing their breasts to undulate: This and the figures they make are designed to...

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
10,716 words
Illustration(s):
1

...than any other factor, this activity spurs the imagination. Many times older young people deliberately try to persuade younger ones to try sex. Cousins, in particular, often help set up the first sexual encounters for their younger relatives. Sometimes cousins are the first sexual partners. On a world scale, this pattern is not unusual. It is unlikely, however, that older relatives and friends raised under similar conditions represent a good source of information. Until recently, Papua New Guinea has remained isolated from the rest of the world. Today, Papua...

Nepal

Nepal   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
10,696 words
Illustration(s):
1

...images and messages that can throw a culture into social chaos around sexual values. Another example of the cultural values relating to discussing sexuality came when I was conducting a meeting with adult women living in Kathmandu. My plan was to conduct a brief activity about the menstrual cycle. The professionals with whom I worked recommended that when I was done, I was to apologize to the group for discussing such a personal subject with them. When I apologized after my talk, the group of women forgave me, and then apologized themselves for not knowing...

Outer Space and Antarctica

Outer Space and Antarctica   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
19,114 words
Illustration(s):
2

...control. This effect may increase as the time in space increases because of the progressive deconditioning of the muscles. Sexual activity, thus, might be an ideal part of an exercise program that people would very likely want to do regularly to maintain overall body and sexual fitness. All of the effects on the human sexual response cycle just described provide possible mechanisms for a breakdown at some point in the cycle. Thus, there is the distinct possibility that any of the sexual dysfunctions experienced by men and women on Earth may increase or be...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...these studies imply that while autoerotic activity is not rare among adolescents and young adults in Turkey, it is, nevertheless, a source of distress. Even among the highly educated, masturbation is not always regarded as an acceptable sexual outlet. Clinical observations and self-report studies with sexually dysfunctional patients in Turkey show that masturbation is more commonly reported by males, while sexual fantasies and autoerotic activities are rarely reported by Turkish females. However, these observations rest on clinical samples and may not reflect...

Cuba

Cuba   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,888 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the curriculum and supplemented with extracurricular activities and family education. It is based on the cross-section content system on sexuality included in the system of school subjects. The program is developed through classes, extracurricular activities, and activities with the students' mothers and fathers. These activities are conceived and carried out following an alternative sex education approach, based on the determination of basic educational needs (SANEBAS), through participatory activities and the implementation of action research findings. This...

Philippines

Philippines   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
23,700 words
Illustration(s):
1

...However, there is one basic characteristic: the belief in the spirits of their ancestors who influence the living in every conceivable sphere of life and apply rewards and sanctions where appropriate. These religions also have lesser gods and deities with different powers related to physical health and fertility. The majority of tribal peoples believe that the first woman came from the “split” of the bamboo node, a kind of a tropical, tall, and slender palm with sequenced “nodes” in the trunk. Some tribal customs allow sexual activity as early as puberty,...

Ghana

Ghana   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,900 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the 2000 presidential elections by the current President, John Agyekum Kufuor . 1. Basic Sexological Premises A. Character of Gender Roles In Ghana, the human world is basically a “man's world.” Women are in a subordinate position in terms of decision making within the household. Women work both inside and outside the home. At home, they are responsible for mothering, cooking, washing, food storage, and processing. Outside, they participate in agricultural activities and farm different crops, but few hold titles to land. It is in the sphere of trading...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
17,228 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of comment by L. Raibin )] 1. Basic Sexological Premises Bernardo Useche A. The Cultural Legacy Observing pieces of Pre-Colombian art and the descriptions of the historians of the Indies (when the colonists arrived), one finds strong evidence that the majority of the aboriginal tribes inhabiting the Colombian territory freely practiced the pleasurable side of sexuality. Among the art pieces of the time, one encounters representations of all possible sexual attitudes: masturbation, heterosexual activity, oral sex, homosexual activity, and bestiality. With the...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be targeted. 3. Deliver and consistently reinforce a clear message about abstaining from sexual activity and/or using condoms or other forms of contraception. This appears to be one of the most important characteristics that distinguish effective from ineffective programs. 4. Provide basic, accurate information about the risks of teen sexual activity and about ways to avoid inter-course or use methods of protection against pregnancy and STDs. 5. Include activities that address social pressures that influence sexual behavior. 6. Provide examples of and...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,972 words
Illustration(s):
1

...they can ever be incorporated into the nation-state of Sri Lanka as anything more than second-class citizens. 1. Basic Sexological Premises A. Character of Gender Roles All researchers agree that Sri Lanka is a patriarchal country, however, the degree of patriarchy is in dispute. Many suggest that Sri Lanka is not nearly as patriarchal as other countries in South Asia; Anju Malhotra and Amy Ong Tsui write that, “in contrast to much of the rest of South Asia, Sri Lanka has a cultural heritage of relative gender equality in terms of later marriages,...

French Polynesia

French Polynesia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,796 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cultural epicenters of Eastern Polynesia ( Goldman 1970 , xxvii). Robert C. Suggs suggests that these two archipelagos were centers of population dispersion for the other islands in Eastern Polynesia ( 1960 , 107, 137). 1. Basic Sexological Premises A. Character of Gender Roles Because cultures operate as integrated systems, the basic sexological premises, such as gender roles, social status, general concepts, and constructs of sexuality and love, must be considered within the broader Polynesian cultural context. Research on the status of women in...

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