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Overview

basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Creation

Creation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...The high priest's discourse in the War Scroll lists all the things in the heavens and on earth that God has created: “the dome of the sky, the host of luminaries, the tasks of the spirits and the dominion of the holy ones … beasts and birds, man's image … sacred seasons and the cycles of years and times everlasting” (1QM x.11–16). Having established reasons for trusting in the sovereignty of God and assuming that this sovereign God is on the side of the Sons of Light, the high priest proclaims: “The battle is yours!” (1QM xi.1). Sovereignty of God. The theme...

Piety

Piety   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,594 words

...reference within Christianity in the West. The “sabbath” became the time to hear the word of God, to partake in the Eucharist, and to rest from secular work and play. The new calendar was different only in degree from the old, continuing to manage time by separating “sacred” from “secular” activities. For Reformed Protestantism, sabbath worship completely replaced the annual, irregular cycle of holy feast days with regular cycles of weekly memorials of the salvation drama. Catholics also readily accepted the heightened appearance of sabbath worship by...

Economics

Economics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,050 words

...2000. Considers how morality can influence long-term business cycles and microeconomic and macroeconomic issues including public finance. El-Ashker, Ahmed , and Rodney Wilson . Islamic Economics: A Short History . Leiden2006. Examines Islamic economic thought since the time of the Prophet, with a focus on the role of the state in economic management. Iqbal, Munawar . Distributive Justice and Need Fulfilment in an Islamic Economy . Leicester, 1988. Considers issues of poverty, equity, and basic needs in Islamic societies. Khan, M. Fahim . Essays in Islamic...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,916 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hashemite authorities in Jordan. The PNA, under the leadership of Fatah leader Yasir Arafat, won out and the Muslim identity of the political institutions of the PNA was established. The Basic Law of the PNA underwrites the Muslim identity of this proto-state institution by providing for sharīʿah courts to address the realm of personal status issues. Article 4 of the Basic Law also declares that Islam is the official religion of Palestine and due respect should be accorded to other religions. The laws of Islam are also the basis for Palestinian law under the...

Warfare

Warfare   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...apparently prevailing in the seventh. Whether these “lots” represent years is not clear; if so, the war is fought over a sabbatical year cycle. A great deal of attention is paid to the formalities of how the battle is carried on, with significant space given to the trumpet calls (iii.1–11), the various ensigns carried by the particular battalions (iii.13–v.2), the decoration of the weapons (v.4–14; vi.2–3), and the activities of the priests (vii.9–ix.9). The order of battle is also very stylized: however much it may be based on actual warfare of the time, it...

Family

Family   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,078 words

...were to complete such tasks as they were given readily and willingly. Yet, though all labored alike, not all labor was alike. All observers and commentators of the sixteenth century recognized and recommended Aristotle 's basic division of labor, in which women restricted their activities to the domestic sphere and left market activities to their men. These statements acknowledged, however, that wives were intimately engaged in the family business, buying raw materials, laboring in the shops, selling finished products, and occasionally wielding the authority...

Patriarchy/Kyriarchy

Patriarchy/Kyriarchy   Reference library

Deborah W. Rooke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,579 words

...and equally capable of undertaking strenuous physical activity, many modern paradigms distinguish emphatically between men and women and form the basis of human socialization from birth. These paradigms are patriarchal in that they conceive of men as physically, intellectually, and socially dominant and women as more delicate, less capable, and made for childbearing and supporting roles. Sadly, advances in biological knowledge have had little effect on deep-rooted, prejudicial ideas about women’s basic inferiority to men, and it is this witting or unwitting...

African Languages and Literatures

African Languages and Literatures   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,130 words

...audience. Oral Literature. There is also a tradition of unwritten vernacular Islamic literature in Fulfulde and particularly in Hausa. This consists of oral versions, often highly localized, of major Islamic folkloric cycles such as the romance of Banū Hilāl, the saga of Sayf ibn Dhī Yazan, and the Islamic version of the Alexander cycle. The Maqāmāt stories and the classical Arabic collection Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʿ are also common sources for oral tales. This oral literature appears mainly to have been acquired by contacts with popular Cairene Muslim...

Male-Female Sexuality

Male-Female Sexuality   Reference library

Rhiannon Graybill, Giulia Sissa, Bradford A. Kirkegaard, Yii-Jan Lin, Tirzah Meacham, and Kathy L. Gaca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,472 words

...In all human societies, men exchange women. Marriage is a basic factor of civilization. Kinship systems regulate the formation of households, and the creation of bonds of alliance and affinity. In the fictional society projected by the epics, sexuality between women and men provides a unique source of narrative developments and powerful characters. Since this kind of intercourse results in procreation, it brings to life generations of gods, human beings, demigods, and heroes. Since this sexual activity has to be disciplined and ritualized through marriage, the...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
20,911 words
Illustration(s):
1

...birth of the prophet Muḥammad, the mevlûd in Turkey, while men predominate in activities that take place in mosques. Rather than seeing the mevlûd as primarily a women's activity, it is best to see it as complementary to mosque activities and an integral element of the way Islam is understood locally and practiced by both women and men acting as households. Ritual and Community. Popular elaboration of ritual also distinguishes communities within the Muslim world. The ritual cycle of mourning for the betrayal of the Prophet's grandson Ḥusayn ( d. 680 )...

Heteronormativity/Heterosexism

Heteronormativity/Heterosexism   Reference library

Teresa J. Hornsby

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,432 words

...gender, exists as a grid); and upon this illusion of two and opposing genders rests heteronormativity, or what Butler refers to as “the heterosexual matrix.” Butler writes, “The institution of compulsory and naturalized heterosexuality requires and regulates gender as a binary relation in which the masculine term is differentiated from a feminine term, and this differentiation is accomplished through the practices of heterosexual desire” ( Butler, 1990 , pp. 22–23). All power rests upon this construct: as the designations “male” or “female” become...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...the domestic gods (the Lares, protectors of the family, and the Penates, guardians of the storehouse) and performing rituals connected to the life cycle (e.g., birth, marriage, death) and ancestor worship. Women too were active in attending to the religious life of the domus : they decorated the hearth with garlands, maintained the supplies of the storehouse ( penus ), prepared the materials used in ritual activities, and tended the hearth fire (responsibilities that mimicked those of the state’s Vestal Virgins). There is also evidence of women joining their...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...activity that is considered a violation of the rights or honor of a male who has authority over her, whether husband or father, it is labeled as sexual promiscuity ( znh ) in biblical texts. As Phyllis Bird has demonstrated, the basic meaning of the root znh is “to engage in sexual relations outside of or apart from marriage” ( 1989 , pp. 75–80). Thus znh covers all instances of sexual intercourse in which there is an absence of a marriage bond between otherwise acceptable partners, including adultery, premarital sex, and the licit sexual activities of...

Mosque

Mosque   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
18,226 words
Illustration(s):
5

...niche), the minbar (pulpit), and the minaret, have come to be associated with a mosque, the only essential element consists of a suitable empty space allowing for the regular performance of private and common prayer. Other possible activities related to education, legal procedures, counseling, conflict resolution, life-cycle celebrations, public communication, political mobilization, entertainment, lodging, and the provision of welfare assistance, follow from this cultic raison d ’être . This combination of ceremonial and practical usages centered in or...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
19,065 words

...their congregations “Christmas and Easter Christians.” Distinctions gradually emerged between women and men, and between married and unmarried adults, the former receiving Communion more frequently than the latter. Sunday, which was a rest day, was devoted to church going, relaxation, and leisure. It had its place in the cycle of the liturgical year, which culminated in the three great festivals, each a two-day holiday together with a half-day off. After 1600 Christmas began to gain its special significance particularly in Germany. Good Friday became a...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
13,377 words
Illustration(s):
7

...spiraled minaret on Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn's mosque linked that structure with the extraordinary spiraled towers the ʿAbbāsid caliphs built in Samarra in the ninth century. The most ubiquitous basic form, a tapering, rounded shaft, is found throughout Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan. Ruling dynasties modified the proportions of this basic form, varying its number of balconies and their placement, and its materiality and surface ornamentation. The minarets of Ṣafavid Isfahan are similar yet recognizably different from those of...

Music

Music   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
11,793 words

...reputable music historian; lacks documentation except for basic bibliography. Nugent, George . Anti-Protestant Music for Sixteenth-Century Ferrara . Journal of the American Musicological Society 43 (1990), 228–291. An impressive historical essay centering on the musical consequences of the conflict between Ercole II d'Este of Ferrara and his duchess, Renée of France, resulting from her openly Protestant sympathies. Reese, Gustave . Music in the Renaissance . Rev. ed. New York, 1959. Still the basic work in English; encyclopedic, emphasizing both...

Imagery, Gendered

Imagery, Gendered   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Goldstein, Ken Stone, Julia M. O’Brien, Carole R. Fontaine, Greg Carey, Michal Beth Dinkler, and Susan Grove Eastman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,610 words

... 10—30 , showing many shared affinities with female characterization found in the rest of the Bible. Some of the characterizations are positive: the sages knew fully well that without the significant participation of women in the economic life of the family, no man or male organization could expect to succeed ( Prov 18:22 , 19:14 ; cf. 11:16 , 22 ; 12:4 ; 14:1 ). Village economies were based on subsistence agriculture, where women’s work in the “maintenance” activities of production (food, fabrication of textiles, and progeny) and consumption (food...

Sexual Violence

Sexual Violence   Reference library

Hilary Lipka, Harold C. Washington, Susan Deacy, Fiona McHardy, John W. Marshall, Marianne Blickenstaff, Mika Ahuvia, and Joy A. Schroeder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,730 words

...for use value and ktasthai [from ktaomai ] procuring or gaining from use. Whether Paul is referring to a person or masturbation is unclear, but the instrumental vision of sexual activity is plainly evident. Such utilitarian understanding of sexual activity abets the integration of sex and violence in Roman society. Romans and Greeks characteristically envisioned sexual activity as occurring in relationships of differential power. Conversely, power relations were also envisioned in sexual terms. Thus violence in the exercise of power was frequently sexual....

Islam

Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
46,709 words
Illustration(s):
19

...heads of religion in those states that were not under direct rule, but this concession was so heavily regulated as to render it nugatory. Islam was in fact reduced from an essential of the state, its basic foundation, to mere individual belief. As though this were not enough, the religion itself became subject to government fiat at a very basic level. The respective colonial bureaucracies so regulated many of the fundamental institutions of Islam that even today it is impossible, or very difficult, to see Islam except in the terms imposed then. For...

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