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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Yin–Yang Theory

Yin–Yang Theory   Reference library

James D. SELLMANN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...of the five phases was ascending and what color and emblem the state should institute as its model. If the natural cycles of yin, yang, and the five phases could be used to determine the rise and fall of states, then they should have application to all sorts of endeavors. During the Han dynasty yin–yang theory was used to explain natural phenomena, human activities, health, and wealth. Besides the conquest cycle for the five phases, there is a cycle of generation in which earth grows wood, wood fuels fire, fire’s ash produces earth, earth produces metal, and...

University Education

University Education   Reference library

Qiang ZHA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...98/5 were initially nine in number and have expanded to thirty-nine in 2009 . The country’s two top universities, Peking University and Tsinghua University, are exclusively funded by the central government (getting ¥1.8 billion each for the first three-year cycle of the program), while the rest are funded by the Ministry of Education with matching funds from multiple sources at lower levels. The top echelon universities of the system enjoy significant advantages from the extra resources provided under the elite-university development projects and carry...

Disasters

Disasters   Reference library

John C. HORGAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...in the eighteenth century a famine relief system that worked quite well and underpinned the legitimacy of the Qing dynasty. However, by the nineteenth century people began to sense that the government was no longer capable of caring for its people because of the continuous cycles of flood and famine. Adding to the government’s problems in providing relief were bad roads, poor transportation systems, insufficient amounts of relief aid, and corruption. The government also resorted to using the army to massacre peasants attempting to flee rural areas to...

Time

Time   Reference library

Carlene E. Stephens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The main source of time's authority lay in religious beliefs. Religion exerted a powerful influence on the way people kept track of time and ordered their lives in worship, work, and rest. Religion provided ideas and rules to specify how people should use time. Every religion practiced its own calendar-based rituals, merged recurring holy days with astronomical cycles in nature, and coordinated social time. The dominant religion of early America's European population was Protestant Christianity. The Bible described how God made time, revealed time in...

Play

Play   Reference library

Jon-Paul Dyson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...but they also created alternate play places such as Young Men's Christian Associations, expositions, and world's fairs to enlighten and ennoble the masses. Genteel reformers like Frederick Law Olmsted designed parks and museums to make the laborer's day of rest and amusement one of rest and edification—better to stroll decorously in the park than romp in the saloon or dance hall, these reformers argued. Progressives worried most about the behaviors of urban children, and child savers created playgrounds and organizations like the Boy Scouts to get...

Rituals, Customs, and Holidays

Rituals, Customs, and Holidays   Reference library

McCrossen Alexis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...or a bore, the Sabbath rightly holds the place of the first American holiday; on it, regular work and activity ceased, people gathered together, and rituals were observed. The Christian Sabbath derives some of its power from the association of the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper , with its observance. The Eucharist and other sacraments form the foundation for many religious holy days and holidays. Rituals associated with biological and spiritual life cycles, such as baptism, coming-of-age celebrations like confirmations, bat mitzvahs and bar mitzvahs ,...

Drought and the Origins of the Mexican Revolution

Drought and the Origins of the Mexican Revolution   Reference library

Mikael D. Wolfe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,239 words

...the maps of her data set are primarily located in the north, including but not exclusively Chihuahua and the Laguna. Likewise, the areas with the greatest concentration of insurgent activity are also located in the north, although not all areas with severe drought experienced the same level of insurgency. Indeed, a few areas with lower levels of drought saw more insurgent activity than those that experienced severe drought and vice-versa. This suggests a strong general, but not perfect, correlation between drought and insurgency according to her data. If we examine...

Foodways

Foodways   Reference library

Long Lucy Margaret

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...American continent offers an abundance of natural resources for food that long seemed endless and renewable. Its diverse indigenous peoples had developed strategies for obtaining nourishment and sustenance from the land, reflecting a value system that placed humans within larger cycles of life demanding respect for nature. Some of their foodways were passed along to European explorers and settlers, aiding their survival. These included drying and smoking game meat and fish to preserve them, soaking nuts and roots to rid them of toxic elements, and growing and...

The Colonial Mosaic of Indigenous New Spain, 1519–1821

The Colonial Mosaic of Indigenous New Spain, 1519–1821   Reference library

Susan Kellogg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
14,611 words

...especially overseeing activities of female members, an echo of the complementary roles they played in religious organization of the prehispanic past. 36 Female roles in birth, marriage, and medicine also carried over into the colonial period, as women worked as midwives, matchmakers, and healers. Women’s activities in all three areas provoked negative responses from clergy because of the possibility of undermining Catholic teachings. One of the ritual areas that most concerned the church in New Spain was indigenous women’s activities in the realm of magic, ...

The History and Visual Culture of Mexico City’s Xochimilco Potable Water System during the Porfiriato

The History and Visual Culture of Mexico City’s Xochimilco Potable Water System during the Porfiriato   Reference library

Jeffrey M. Banister and Stacie G. Widdifield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,912 words
Illustration(s):
2

... As of 1883 , close to 500 artesian springs had been tapped for the potable delivery infrastructure. 16 A mere three years later, Mexico City’s ayuntamiento had perforated around 1,100 wells. Excessive pumping caused water levels to drop precipitously. In a vicious negative cycle of social-environmental feedback, falling groundwater levels in turn required ever more powerful pumps to pull the water from even greater depths. One such pump had been installed at Chapultepec to bring waters from springs that had rarely faltered since the time of the Aztecs....

Chiapas and the Zapatista National Liberation Army

Chiapas and the Zapatista National Liberation Army   Reference library

Marco Estrada-Saavedra

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,878 words

...conflict, however, are complex. Following Mexican independence ( 1821 ), this pattern of large landholdings continued in Chiapas for four decades after the decline of similar arrangements in the rest of the colonial world. The major landowners were religious orders, particularly the Dominicans, followed by indigenous communities and small landholders. In the rest of Mexico, the Reform Laws and the War of Reform ( 1855–1861 ), as well as the French intervention and the establishment and fall of the Second Mexican Empire ( 1862–1867 ), helped establish the...

José Vasconcelos, National Education, and Revolutionary Culture in Mexico

José Vasconcelos, National Education, and Revolutionary Culture in Mexico   Reference library

William H. Beezley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,372 words

...on it continues to grow. primary sources The basic sources for the revolutionary educational campaign remain the archives of the Ministry of Public Education and other governmental document collections, such as presidential administration files, located in the Archivo General de la Nación. The education ministry’s monthly magazine for teachers, El Maestro , also provides an intriguing resource documenting educators’ activities at the local level. A little used source is the card file on teachers and their activities in the Frank Tannenbaum Collection in the...

The Mexican Son, Past and Present

The Mexican Son, Past and Present   Reference library

Raquel G. Paraíso

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
13,080 words

...plural is context dependent. 2. Acknowledging that hardly any classification is satisfactory or exclusive, this work deals with sones mestizos rather than “traditional sones ,” which generally are performed in ritualized occasions linked to celebratory life-cycle events and agricultural cycles. 3. Daniel E. Sheehy , “Popular Mexican Musical Traditions: The Mariachi of West Mexico and the Conjunto Jarocho of Veracruz,” in Music in Latin American Culture: Regional Traditions , ed. John M. Schechter (New York: Schirmer Books, 1999), 39. 4. ...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
15,331 words

...purpose, for example—or some important aspect of life (how to live well, what is “right” or “wrong,” “true” or “false”). To philosophize is to engage in the intellectual activities of fashioning such conceptions and to share the conceptions with others through various modes of communication, normally oral expressions or writing. Producing and sharing such conceptions are essential activities that must be taken up by some individuals within all self-reproducing sociocultural collectivities that endeavor to persist across success generations. Historically,...

Political Prefects: The Regional Political Bosses of Mexico

Political Prefects: The Regional Political Bosses of Mexico   Reference library

Romana Gloria Falcón Vega

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
8,544 words

...Carranza in 1914 , and in 1917 they were removed definitively from the constitutional framework. Discussion of the Literature Studies on the prefectures are strongly linked with the historiography of the 19th century , and especially that of the porfiriato . The first cycle took place when the prefectures were still in power, and some “notes” were written about their works and biographies: these were eulogistic truths. 29 Then the “classic” historiography of the revolution drove a 180-degree change in this analysis. It exaggerated the negative chara...

Agrarian Revolt in the Sierra of Chihuahua

Agrarian Revolt in the Sierra of Chihuahua   Reference library

Elizabeth A. Henson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,834 words

...own. In 1968 the regime responded with naked repression: the old process of negotiation was overturned. Soon the state and the armed opposition confronted one another openly in what became known as the dirty war. In Chihuahua, the turning point came earlier. 1959–1963 The cycle of repression and protest that culminated in the attack on the base began in the small town of Madera, where Alvaro Ríos had just arrived to organize a chapter of the UGOCM. 27 In November 1959 , the retired schoolteacher Francisco Luján was assassinated at his home; he had...

Festivals and Festival Cycles

Festivals and Festival Cycles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,724 words

...more complex; it was dialectical, and its symbolism was exuberant. Besides the solar reference, the structure of the festival calendar derived from seasonal and agricultural cycles. The division of the year into the dry season ( tonalco ) and the rainy season ( xopan ) was fundamental. Ceremonies dedicated to the deities of rain, maize, and the earth provided the basic calendrical cycle. Mesoamerica is situated within the tropical latitudes, where the sun passes the zenith twice a year, on its apparent journey toward the Tropic of Cancer (23°27′N), and on its...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,747 words

.... From 1500 to 1000 bce , small settlements of sedentary agriculturalists were formed, which produced baskets, ceramics, and stone objects by the first specialists. During this period, called the Formative (Preclassic), agricultural activity was transformed into an essential aspect of existence ( Wolf 1966 ), when the basic patterns of Mesoamerican civilization were originated and tested: technology, architecture, artisanal specialization, social differentiation, and religious specialization. According to Mangelsdorf , MacNeish , and Willey ( 1964 ),...

Family and Kinship

Family and Kinship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,657 words

...crafts. The Highland Maya area today exhibits far greater variation in kinship terminology than the rest of Mesoamerica, including the Omaha type reported in some Tzeltal and Tzotzil communities. In this kin terminology system, most of the mother's male relatives are referred to by the same term, obscuring generational differences and treating them as a collectivity. The Maya area also has the most instances of the few reported unilineal descent groups. The basic kin group type is the nuclear family, which may form an independent household. Still today, and much...

Parishes

Parishes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,912 words

...birth, where they had to marry, and where their remains would ultimately rest. What was true for the great cycle of existence was equally true of daily life. The year was marked out by the liturgical calendar, and the principal religious obligations, such as confession, had to be carried out in the parish church, especially during Lent and Holy Week. The daily lives of the populace were also organized by the ringing of the parish church bells, with which they awoke, went to work, rested, and said their morning, afternoon, and evening prayers. Principal social...

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