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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Piety

Piety   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,594 words

...reference within Christianity in the West. The “sabbath” became the time to hear the word of God, to partake in the Eucharist, and to rest from secular work and play. The new calendar was different only in degree from the old, continuing to manage time by separating “sacred” from “secular” activities. For Reformed Protestantism, sabbath worship completely replaced the annual, irregular cycle of holy feast days with regular cycles of weekly memorials of the salvation drama. Catholics also readily accepted the heightened appearance of sabbath worship by...

Family

Family   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,078 words

...were to complete such tasks as they were given readily and willingly. Yet, though all labored alike, not all labor was alike. All observers and commentators of the sixteenth century recognized and recommended Aristotle 's basic division of labor, in which women restricted their activities to the domestic sphere and left market activities to their men. These statements acknowledged, however, that wives were intimately engaged in the family business, buying raw materials, laboring in the shops, selling finished products, and occasionally wielding the authority...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
19,065 words

...their congregations “Christmas and Easter Christians.” Distinctions gradually emerged between women and men, and between married and unmarried adults, the former receiving Communion more frequently than the latter. Sunday, which was a rest day, was devoted to church going, relaxation, and leisure. It had its place in the cycle of the liturgical year, which culminated in the three great festivals, each a two-day holiday together with a half-day off. After 1600 Christmas began to gain its special significance particularly in Germany. Good Friday became a...

Music

Music   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
11,793 words

...reputable music historian; lacks documentation except for basic bibliography. Nugent, George . Anti-Protestant Music for Sixteenth-Century Ferrara . Journal of the American Musicological Society 43 (1990), 228–291. An impressive historical essay centering on the musical consequences of the conflict between Ercole II d'Este of Ferrara and his duchess, Renée of France, resulting from her openly Protestant sympathies. Reese, Gustave . Music in the Renaissance . Rev. ed. New York, 1959. Still the basic work in English; encyclopedic, emphasizing both...

Economic Thought

Economic Thought   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
6,892 words

...and cannot, regulate itself, for without detailed supervision the diverse interests and activities of individual subjects would simply hinder realization of the common good. It is the work of “police” ( la police, Polizei ) that facilitates this, a dense mesh of rules governing an ever-growing range of activities, seeking to forestall rather than to punish infringement. Rather like today's municipal bylaws governing the hours when one may play music or where one may cycle, this regulation of social life developed in local contexts; it did not take the form of...

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