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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Chapter house

Chapter house   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
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3,315 words
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...there might be cycles of wall paintings, historiated floor tiles (e.g. Bury St Edmunds Abbey; destr.), and stained glass (e.g. Durham Cathedral). Leo of Ostia records that the ceiling and pavement at Montecassino Abbey were ‘lavishly decorated with the most beautiful pictures’, probably in paint and mosaic. Chapter houses often contained large crucifixes or other luxury objects and, like the monks’ choirs, were especially decorated on principal feast days with more temporary decoration, including hangings, rugs, and other rich fabrics. The basic element in any...

Giotto (di Bondone)

Giotto (di Bondone) (1267–75)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
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13,260 words
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...with Duccio’s contemporary work) and the added attention to the Virgin and her parents, a rare element, are evidence of Giotto’s most basic novelty: the attention to the human condition rather than to the supernatural. Christ emerges not from a diagrammatic Tree of Jesse but from a warm extended family; his ancestry and Old Testament analogues are not abolished but are removed to the small vault and wall medallions. In the cycle of the Life of the Virgin the events of her wedding are extended over four scenes only moments apart, three of which have the same...

medicine

medicine   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
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4,991 words
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2

...was dietetics, with advice on staple items such as bread and wine, or fruits and legumes: many of these were local, but others were exotic, derived from Greek or Arabic sources. The next crucial factors were paired as movement and rest, sleep and wakefulness, and intake and output or ‘repletion and excretion’—with sexual activity floating among them. The series concluded with the ‘accidents of the soul’ or states of mind or emotions, such as despondency or anger, which might aggravate, alleviate, or prevent disease. As medical doctrine moved further into the...

Rouen

Rouen   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
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7,481 words
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3

...remain from this campaign. (b) Gothic. After the fire of 1200 rebuilding began at the west end of the nave, financed initially by King John . Such details as arcade mouldings reveal that the five western bays were built as part of a single campaign. The rest of the nave was completed to the same basic design after a short break. Jean d’Andeli is mentioned as architect in 1206 , and the easternmost nave vault is signed by the mason Durandus, who is recorded working on the fabric in 1232–3 : thus the nave was probably finished around 1230 . The nave is 28...

Romanesque painting

Romanesque painting   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
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27,177 words
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...period are characterized by expansive and relatively unbroken wall surfaces, allowing for long and coherent narrative cycles rather than an assemblage of differing subjects. Particularly in the smaller churches, the subject-matter was typically restricted to a few basic themes—Christ in Majesty, the Infancy and Passion of Christ, the Last Judgement, and the Lives of Saints—all logically and hierarchically arranged. Often the narrative cycles were disposed in two horizontal registers and, given the dominant influences on the actual subject-matter (frequently...

Milan

Milan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
13,887 words
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..., probably from the circle of Nicholas of Verdun, and it represents the same decorative type as the manuscripts. It is possible to identify the activities of important painters only from the 13th century, including the Master of the de Cottis grave, who frescoed the tomb of Guglielmo de Cottis ( d 1267 ; Milan, S Ambrogio). A number of works may be attributed to the Master of Angera, named after the fresco cycle in the castle at Angera; these depict the victory of Archbishop Ottone Visconti over his rivals, the Torriani family, at the Battle of Desio...

Prague

Prague   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
11,139 words
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...contains a cycle of portrait busts above the passage doorways. They were originally painted and above them are inscriptions and the remains of hangings for perpetual lights. The busts, representing the worldly and spiritual aristocracy, include Charles himself and members of the imperial family, archbishops of Prague, clerks of the works, and the architects of the cathedral, Mathias of Arras and Parler himself. The bust added later beneath an inscription commemorating the director of building, Wenzel von Radeč , is problematical. The portrait cycle continued...

Venice

Venice   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
19,707 words
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2

...with cycles of the Months , the Virtues , the Beatitudes , and the Trades , juxtaposed with such carvings in the Byzantine style as Christ Blessing and the Virgin in Prayer . These styles merged in such late 14th-century reliefs as St George and Hercules and the Boar (both between the arches of the façade). The Late Gothic crowning elements and the free-standing statues of the early 15th century, especially those by Niccolò di Piero Lamberti and Piero di Niccolò Lamberti , constitute the last significant cycle of...

Church

Church   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...te Rome, Rom, 28.–30. September 1997 S. de Blaauw : ‘Immagini di liturgia: Sisto V, la tradizione liturgica dei papi e le antiche basiliche di Roma’, Röm. Jb. Bib. Hertz. , xxxiii (1999–2000), pp. 259–302 Art, cérémonial et liturgie au Moyen Âge: Actes du colloque de 3e Cycle romand de letters III, Lausanne–Fribourg, 24–25 mars, 14–15 avril, 12–13 mai 2000 H. Brandenburg : ‘Die Architektur der Basilika San Paolo fuori le mura: Das Apostelgrab als Zentrum der Liturgie und des Märtyrerkultes’, Mitt. Dt. Archaeol. Inst.: Röm. Abt. , cxii (2005–6), pp. 237–75...

Hungary, Republic of

Hungary, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
9,271 words
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...the screen at Somogyvár, of which the relief believed by some to represent St Giles survives (Kaposvár, Rippl-Ronai Mus.). The altar of the Holy Cross, the two staircases to the crypt, and the screen in Pécs Cathedral were all decorated by a local workshop and are rich in relief cycles, including the Life of Christ and Life of Samson (1170s; see Pécs , 1 ). The Pécs workshop executed the great figural portal and the ornamental stone-carvings at Székesfehérvár Cathedral (destr.) and worked on the reliefs in the Benedictine abbey church in Somogyvár. The...

Rome

Rome   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
31,688 words
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5

...I. Below the clerestory windows of the nave were two cycles of biblical frescoes: 44 Old Testament subjects in panels on the north wall and 41 New Testament scenes on the south. The difference in numbers is explained by the size of the Crucifixion fresco, which occupied four panels in the centre of the south wall. These were recorded by Grimaldi, who dated them to the time of Formosus ( reg 891–6 ), although they have also been assigned to the pontificate of Leo I on the basis of comparisons with the cycle (destr. 1823) from S Paolo fuori le mura. Between the...

Naples

Naples   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
10,301 words
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...the tombs of Mary ( d 1367 ) and Agnese and Clemenza ( d 1383 and 1370 ) of Anjou-Durazzo. The church also had a monumental narrative relief cycle recounting the Life of St Catherine of Alexandria (destr. 1943 , fragments in the Museo dell’Opera di S Chiara), which was attributed to the Bertini brothers. According to literary sources, Giotto, who was in Naples from 1328 to 1332 , painted a cycle of Old and New Testament scenes and the Apocalypse in S Chiara. The remains of a Lamentation of Christ on the back of a Calvary scene (Nuns’ Choir)...

Romanesque metalwork.

Romanesque metalwork.   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the Meuse Valley, notably Dinant, were also renowned for the manufacture of brass utensils known as ‘Dinanderies’ ( see Brass ). The Mosan metalworking centres perfected the techniques of champlevé enamelling and niello for the illustration of complex typological cycles ( see Typological cycles ), as well as borrowings from Byzantine sources and allegorical figures, such as Virtues and Vices, the modelling of which continued to follow classicizing Carolingian styles. The incorporation of older Byzantine enamels, hardstone settings, antique intaglios, and...

Manuscript

Manuscript   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
17,240 words
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...book, acquiring other devotional material throughout the Middle Ages. As a shorter version of the cycle of daily prayers found in the Breviary, the Book of Hours became the most popular devotional book for the laity. Other illustrated genres became available in much larger quantities throughout Europe as texts began to be translated and written in the vernacular, such as Bestiaries and, to a lesser extent, herbals. A major development in England and later the rest of Europe was the production of extensively illustrated Apocalypse manuscripts, often with...

Germany, Federal Republic of

Germany, Federal Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
28,041 words
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4

... 140 ) and the Codex egberti (Trier, Stadtbib., MS. 24), the principal contributor to which was the master of the Registrum gregorii , who later worked in Trier. Some relatively well-preserved wall paintings remain in the church of St Georg on Reichenau, on which there is a cycle of the Miracles of Christ (before 1000 ), and in the priory at Neuenberg ( 1023 ), near Fulda. In the Romanesque period ( c. 1000– c. 1200 ) German painting was not of the same quality as before. The powerful patrons of manuscript illumination were replaced by the reformed...

Monastery

Monastery   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order that Master Peter executed in 1402 for the Winter Refectory of Malbork Castle. Throughout the 15th century the decoration of refectories followed current stylistic trends, as is demonstrated by the Last Supper that formed part of a cycle, with the Crucifixion , Entombment , and Resurrection ( 1447 ) in S Apollonia, Florence, all by Andrea del Castagno (before 1419–57 ). An interesting development of the late 15th century involves the integration of the painted Last Supper into the architecture of the...

Gothic sculpture

Gothic sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
48,101 words
Illustration(s):
3

...to produce whole cycles of figures for porches or to decorate the complete interior of a church. Instead greater attention was paid to the creation of isolated works, such as statues, tombs, and altarpieces. Economic and social conditions changed as sculptors and masons, some of whom ran large workshops based in a particular location, organized themselves into urban guilds. This fostered the development of local styles, although the constant spread of different ideas, which were often introduced through a sculptor’s other activities as wood-carver,...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
34,947 words
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5

...(Oxford, Bodleian Lib., Add. MS. D. 104), in which the principal source of inspiration was Ottonian miniatures. In Lombardy, however, an important cycle of wall paintings survives at S Vincenzo, Galliano ( c. 1007 ). 3. Late medieval, c . 1100– c . 1400. As in northern Europe, between 1100 and 1400 the revival of Greek and Roman letters was accompanied in Italy by a resurgence of intellectual activity. Along with continuing contacts with the Byzantine Empire and northern Europe, these developments had a decisive influence on the evolution of late...

Romanesque sculpture

Romanesque sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
49,604 words
Illustration(s):
3

...show the stylistic influence of the mosaics and some of the cloister capitals at Monreale Cathedral and bear the only complex iconographic programmes in Romanesque Campania. The archivolt at Sessa Aurunca consists of the canonical and apocryphal cycles of the Lives of SS Peter and Paul separated by an incomplete cycle of Labours of the Months . One of the S Restituta panels depicts fifteen scenes from the Life of the Patriarch Joseph ; the other illustrates five scenes from the Life of St Januarius , a local saint, five episodes from the Life of Samson ,...

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