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Overview

basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Creation

Creation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...The high priest's discourse in the War Scroll lists all the things in the heavens and on earth that God has created: “the dome of the sky, the host of luminaries, the tasks of the spirits and the dominion of the holy ones … beasts and birds, man's image … sacred seasons and the cycles of years and times everlasting” (1QM x.11–16). Having established reasons for trusting in the sovereignty of God and assuming that this sovereign God is on the side of the Sons of Light, the high priest proclaims: “The battle is yours!” (1QM xi.1). Sovereignty of God. The theme...

Warfare

Warfare   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...apparently prevailing in the seventh. Whether these “lots” represent years is not clear; if so, the war is fought over a sabbatical year cycle. A great deal of attention is paid to the formalities of how the battle is carried on, with significant space given to the trumpet calls (iii.1–11), the various ensigns carried by the particular battalions (iii.13–v.2), the decoration of the weapons (v.4–14; vi.2–3), and the activities of the priests (vii.9–ix.9). The order of battle is also very stylized: however much it may be based on actual warfare of the time, it...

Myths

Myths   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in cosmogonic myths among the Egyptians do not reflect mythological confusion but are rather a sign of the genius of the Egyptian mythopoeic mind. In the final analysis, all these traditions attempted to articulate the basic truth that the created universe was in some manner dependent on the divine power. The most enduring of the mythic cycles was that of Osiris, the god of immortality. The origins of Osiris are obscure, and the meaning of his name uncertain, but he was probably known at an early period, although the first mention of his name occurs only in...

Lyric

Lyric   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and forth to each other—bantering, flirting, exchanging words of love and longing, or just passing the time of day. Other sequences of the love poems seem to present discreet situations from poem to poem. Still others, like that of the birdcatcher's daughter from the second song cycle of Harris Papyrus 500, present a carefully worked out series of glimpses of a young woman's mind as she endures a love affair that ends badly; but the sequence is actually narrative from poem to poem. There are only about fifty love songs; and they survive in four small...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...times. Some tall, three-storied town-houses with vaulted cellars have been found there, still standing. Roman Period Besides military installations, Roman building activity mainly promoted nonsacred structures of urban value—bathhouses, theaters, hippodromes, basilicas, forums, new settlements, and the embellishment of towns with columned streets and triumphal arches. Such expensive building activity in Egyptian provincial towns (in the Faiyum, Oxyrhynchus, Antinoöpolis, Hermopolis Magna) even created new building types, such as the komasterion (an assembly hall...

Temples

Temples   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of a temple is performing the cult, such representations must be related to that. Thus, two categories of scenes and other decorative elements of decoration can be distinguished: those that depict cultic activities which were performed at the site, and scenes that support the cult by depicting the historic or mythological origin of these activities. The first category is exemplified by representations of caring for the cultic image or the bark. Images that support the cult include battle scenes, like those of the Battle of Qadesh in Ramesses II's temples...

Cults

Cults   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...swept clean. The daily temple ritual was repeated three times daily, and in large royal cult temples it was certainly enacted for multiple images and subsidiary cults within the temple. The daily cycle of the offering ritual was punctuated by periodic festivals and statue processions in which a royal cult image was taken to nearby gods' temples. This type of activity provided for interaction between surrounding community and royal cult. Cult Personnel Royal cults from the time of the Old Kingdom were maintained by large, complex organizations of priests and...

Military

Military   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in later periods, recruits were much younger. How long or how often an ordinary soldier had to serve we cannot assess. It seems reasonable, however, to assume a rotation practice similar to the one used in the Old Kingdom for corvée workers, whose gangs alternated in ten-month cycles. In Ramessid times, campaigning armies seem to have relied heavily on reservists, soldiers who pursued their private lives in their towns and villages until they were called to arms, either for exercise or for military operations. According to the Greek historian Herodotus in...

Economy

Economy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...One cannot understand the economy of pharaonic Egypt without first analyzing the original documents, which demonstrate the close relationship between the emergence of the state and its economic organization under a new ideology that integrates the king with cosmic and earthly cycles. The Narmer documents display the basis for this system. In this article, emphasis is given to the dominant traits of the pharaonic economy and the vital role of rural production (agriculture and animal husbandry) that led to the organization of the domains under the supervision...

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