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Overview

basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

Giorgio Rochat, Lucio Ceva (Intelligence), and Tr. John Gooch

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
19,646 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(six battalions in all), and motorized artillery. Light divisions ( celeri ) consisted of two regiments of cavalry, one of bersaglieri on trucks, motor cycles, and bicycles, and a regiment of artillery which was partly horse-drawn and partly motorized. Armoured divisions had one regiment of infantry consisting of 184 light tanks, a regiment of bersaglieri (two battalions in trucks, the third on motor cycles) and a regiment of motorized artillery of 24 75 mm. guns. Alpine divisions consisted of two regiments of alpini and a regiment of artillery of 24...

Yin–Yang Theory

Yin–Yang Theory   Reference library

James D. SELLMANN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...of the five phases was ascending and what color and emblem the state should institute as its model. If the natural cycles of yin, yang, and the five phases could be used to determine the rise and fall of states, then they should have application to all sorts of endeavors. During the Han dynasty yin–yang theory was used to explain natural phenomena, human activities, health, and wealth. Besides the conquest cycle for the five phases, there is a cycle of generation in which earth grows wood, wood fuels fire, fire’s ash produces earth, earth produces metal, and...

University Education

University Education   Reference library

Qiang ZHA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...98/5 were initially nine in number and have expanded to thirty-nine in 2009 . The country’s two top universities, Peking University and Tsinghua University, are exclusively funded by the central government (getting ¥1.8 billion each for the first three-year cycle of the program), while the rest are funded by the Ministry of Education with matching funds from multiple sources at lower levels. The top echelon universities of the system enjoy significant advantages from the extra resources provided under the elite-university development projects and carry...

Disasters

Disasters   Reference library

John C. HORGAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...in the eighteenth century a famine relief system that worked quite well and underpinned the legitimacy of the Qing dynasty. However, by the nineteenth century people began to sense that the government was no longer capable of caring for its people because of the continuous cycles of flood and famine. Adding to the government’s problems in providing relief were bad roads, poor transportation systems, insufficient amounts of relief aid, and corruption. The government also resorted to using the army to massacre peasants attempting to flee rural areas to...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...origins of a naval base at Portsmouth. John (r. 1199–1216). Whereas Richard’s military reputation outshines the rest of his abilities, John’s nonmilitary traits have long complicated our appreciation of his military policies. The epithet “Softsword” scarcely helped the picture, nor did his 1185 expedition as Lord of Ireland, which ended in a personal shambles. The early loss of Normandy and other Angevin heartlands to the French overshadowed the rest of John’s reign. The losses also meant that John gave Britain more attention than any recent monarch had. As...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...also the general historical and cultural context in which they were generated, a consideration that also applies to material and visual material. This is especially apparent with respect to art, where different types of visual polemic or choice of style and format for images or cycles of images reflected developments in ecclesiastical politics and theology, as well as cultural priorities and perceptions. Similar considerations apply to sigillography, too, where the choice of invocative formula, types of monogram, and use of imagery are part of a contemporary...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...Andrew’s departure, only John of Brienne, as King of Jerusalem, held royal rank, and though elected leader of the armies for the assault on Egypt, he had to contend with the papal legate, the leaders of the military orders, and the various German, English, and French nobles who cycled in and out of the army. The target of the invasion, Damietta, was a strong fortress, but was considered attainable compared to Alexandria. The crusaders disembarked at the end of May 1218 , but the sultan’s son, al-Kamil, though surprised, managed to assemble a scratch force to...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...ended up affecting the book industry or the business of bookselling: for example, a protectionist national policy toward papermaking in Mexico resulted in higher production costs for books. In addition, the fall in oil prices, precipitating a financial crisis that led to cycles of hyperinflation, devaluation, and economic recession in most of the region during the 1980s actually reduced the population’s income, increased book production costs, and led to declining book sales. From 1984 to 1990 , for example, Argentina produced 18 per cent fewer...

Time

Time   Reference library

Carlene E. Stephens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The main source of time's authority lay in religious beliefs. Religion exerted a powerful influence on the way people kept track of time and ordered their lives in worship, work, and rest. Religion provided ideas and rules to specify how people should use time. Every religion practiced its own calendar-based rituals, merged recurring holy days with astronomical cycles in nature, and coordinated social time. The dominant religion of early America's European population was Protestant Christianity. The Bible described how God made time, revealed time in...

Play

Play   Reference library

Jon-Paul Dyson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...but they also created alternate play places such as Young Men's Christian Associations, expositions, and world's fairs to enlighten and ennoble the masses. Genteel reformers like Frederick Law Olmsted designed parks and museums to make the laborer's day of rest and amusement one of rest and edification—better to stroll decorously in the park than romp in the saloon or dance hall, these reformers argued. Progressives worried most about the behaviors of urban children, and child savers created playgrounds and organizations like the Boy Scouts to get...

Cult

Cult   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,924 words
Illustration(s):
3

...great poetic compositions, the mythic Baal cycle, and the epic stories “Kirta” and “Aqhat,” written in a Canaanite dialect in an alphabetic cuneiform script, were unearthed; many lesser mythic texts of interest have appeared as well, some as recently as the last thirty years (see, for example, texts in Ugaritica , vol. 5, Jean Nougayrol et al., eds., Paris, 1968 ). These critical discoveries supplement the largely Phoenician mythological lore of Sakkunyaton from the first millennium; they tend to confirm the basic authenticity of much of Sakkunyaton's lore,...

Sumerian

Sumerian   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,604 words
Illustration(s):
1

...describe events with divine protagonists that take place in a supernatural world. They revolve around the gods Enki, Enlil, Inanna (and Dumuzi), Ninurta, and other deities. Epics. Two cycles of narrative texts with superhuman protagonists have been preserved: one deals with Gilgamesh (five compositions) and the other with Lugalbanda and Enmerkar (four compositions). Both cycles originated in Uruk. Historical texts. There is a very large number of commemorative royal inscriptions, from all places and dynasties. Some of them can be quite extensive, such as...

Creation

Creation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...The high priest's discourse in the War Scroll lists all the things in the heavens and on earth that God has created: “the dome of the sky, the host of luminaries, the tasks of the spirits and the dominion of the holy ones … beasts and birds, man's image … sacred seasons and the cycles of years and times everlasting” (1QM x.11–16). Having established reasons for trusting in the sovereignty of God and assuming that this sovereign God is on the side of the Sons of Light, the high priest proclaims: “The battle is yours!” (1QM xi.1). Sovereignty of God. The theme...

Piety

Piety   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,594 words

...reference within Christianity in the West. The “sabbath” became the time to hear the word of God, to partake in the Eucharist, and to rest from secular work and play. The new calendar was different only in degree from the old, continuing to manage time by separating “sacred” from “secular” activities. For Reformed Protestantism, sabbath worship completely replaced the annual, irregular cycle of holy feast days with regular cycles of weekly memorials of the salvation drama. Catholics also readily accepted the heightened appearance of sabbath worship by...

Rituals, Customs, and Holidays

Rituals, Customs, and Holidays   Reference library

McCrossen Alexis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...or a bore, the Sabbath rightly holds the place of the first American holiday; on it, regular work and activity ceased, people gathered together, and rituals were observed. The Christian Sabbath derives some of its power from the association of the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper , with its observance. The Eucharist and other sacraments form the foundation for many religious holy days and holidays. Rituals associated with biological and spiritual life cycles, such as baptism, coming-of-age celebrations like confirmations, bat mitzvahs and bar mitzvahs ,...

Warfare

Warfare   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...apparently prevailing in the seventh. Whether these “lots” represent years is not clear; if so, the war is fought over a sabbatical year cycle. A great deal of attention is paid to the formalities of how the battle is carried on, with significant space given to the trumpet calls (iii.1–11), the various ensigns carried by the particular battalions (iii.13–v.2), the decoration of the weapons (v.4–14; vi.2–3), and the activities of the priests (vii.9–ix.9). The order of battle is also very stylized: however much it may be based on actual warfare of the time, it...

Family

Family   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,078 words

...were to complete such tasks as they were given readily and willingly. Yet, though all labored alike, not all labor was alike. All observers and commentators of the sixteenth century recognized and recommended Aristotle 's basic division of labor, in which women restricted their activities to the domestic sphere and left market activities to their men. These statements acknowledged, however, that wives were intimately engaged in the family business, buying raw materials, laboring in the shops, selling finished products, and occasionally wielding the authority...

Drought and the Origins of the Mexican Revolution

Drought and the Origins of the Mexican Revolution   Reference library

Mikael D. Wolfe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,239 words

...the maps of her data set are primarily located in the north, including but not exclusively Chihuahua and the Laguna. Likewise, the areas with the greatest concentration of insurgent activity are also located in the north, although not all areas with severe drought experienced the same level of insurgency. Indeed, a few areas with lower levels of drought saw more insurgent activity than those that experienced severe drought and vice-versa. This suggests a strong general, but not perfect, correlation between drought and insurgency according to her data. If we examine...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,242 words
Illustration(s):
3

...over thousands of years bent to new urban-based demands. Typically for the Syro-Palestinian region, this process took place in the context of increasing relations with more highly organized and more powerful neighbors, in this case, a unified Egypt. The basic structure of the Mediterranean mixed economy rests on the region's sharp climatic biseasonality. The beginning of the agricultural year finds the fields hard baked by five months of rainless summer, during which high insolation rates drain the soil of all its moisture. The winter rains must fall to...

Foodways

Foodways   Reference library

Long Lucy Margaret

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...American continent offers an abundance of natural resources for food that long seemed endless and renewable. Its diverse indigenous peoples had developed strategies for obtaining nourishment and sustenance from the land, reflecting a value system that placed humans within larger cycles of life demanding respect for nature. Some of their foodways were passed along to European explorers and settlers, aiding their survival. These included drying and smoking game meat and fish to preserve them, soaking nuts and roots to rid them of toxic elements, and growing and...

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