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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

demography of the war

demography of the war   Reference library

J. M. Winter

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,549 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the boundary between civilian and military targets in warfare was obliterated. In Asia, as throughout occupied Europe, disease, famine, and indiscriminate bombardment of civilian populations produced a parallel human disaster, the dimensions of which can never be fully known. The bare outlines of this catastrophe are presented in Table 1. Over half of the 50 million men, women , and children who perished in the Second World War were civilians. Demography, Table 1: Approximate war-related deaths of major combatant nations in the Second World War Country...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

J. L. Granatstein

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Thus when the federal election was held on 11 June 1945 , fortuitously after the war in Europe had ended and before Canada's promise of a division for the Pacific war had time to be implemented. King's government was re-elected with 41% of the popular vote and 125 seats, a bare majority. In Quebec, however, King won 53 of 65 seats and, as one academic noted in an election analysis, ‘Quebec Saves Our King’. It was precisely true, though the Liberals did win more seats outside Quebec than any other party. 4. Canada–US relations Before the outbreak of the...

Navy, U.S

Navy, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Diplomatic Activities of U.S. Naval Officers, 1798–1883 , 1988. Kenneth Hagan , This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power , 1991. Christopher McKee , A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession: The Creation of the U.S. Naval Officer Corps, 1794–1815 , 1991. George Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 , 1994. Edward J. Marolda , By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the United States Navy and the War in Southeast Asia , 1994. Mark Shulman , Navalism and the Emergence of American Sea Power, 1882–1893 ,...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Sea , 1989. Jon Tetsuro Sumida , In Defence of Naval Supremacy , 1989. B.J.C. McKercher , ed., Arms Limitation and Disarmament , 1992. C.I. Hamilton , The Anglo‐French Naval Rivalry, 1840–1870 , 1993. Volker Berghahn , Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 , 1993. George W. Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power , 1994. Daniel Moran Arms Race: Nuclear Arms Race The United States, with Britain, developed atomic weapons during World War II and used them as a means to force Japan's early surrender. The first (and so far last) use of these weapons in...

Navy, U.S.

Navy, U.S.   Reference library

Mark R. Shulman, Timothy J. Lynch, Michael A. Palmer, Malcolm Muir, Malcolm Muir, John Lehman, Dani Holtz, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Rumsfeld, Donald ; September 11th Terrorist Attacks ; Spanish–American War (1898) ; Submarines and Submarine Warfare ; Terror, War on ; Truman, Harry S. ; Vietnam War (1960–1975) ; War of 1812 ; World War I (1914–1918) ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Baer, George W. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U. S. Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996. Daughan, George C. If by Sea: The Forging of the American Navy—From the Revolution to the War of 1812 . New York: Basic Books, 2008. Goodspeed, M. Hill ,...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...for the supervision of the imperial prisons and the walls of the palace. The support of the tagmata for iconoclasm is evidenced in their disruption of the Ecumenical Council of 786 in Nicaea when troops of the Scholai, the Exkoubitoi, and the other regiments threatened with bare swords the patriarch and bishops gathered in the Church of the Holy Apostles and broke up the council. Two other heavy cavalry regiments were added later, the Vigla and the Hikanatoi. The former was apparently created by Empress Irene (r. 780–802 ) for personal security as a...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...looked on the Iberian cavalcade itself as the secret to understanding a Spanish character that was formed as a consequence of almost constant military, linguistic, and cultural conflict. Though Hispanicists have increasingly distanced themselves from this dichotomy, its bare outlines are still visible in scholarship on Spanish military affairs that tends to view martial developments in the Peninsula as the result of national or European causes. Spanish Scholarship. Studies of Spanish military matters of the central Middle Ages have been severely...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...historical writing continued apace, although it came to be dominated by clergy who were more likely to be affiliated with an ecclesiastical house or church. Local histories complement national, even international, approaches. Many of the sources are actually annals or chronicles, bare-bones litanies of significant events that impinged on the consciousness of the writer tasked with keeping the record. That structure works to the modern historian’s advantage because the descriptions therein are more often free of the thematic doctoring that accompanies more...

Prisoners of War

Prisoners of War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to know that their families were aware of their fate: all of these helped to make captivity tolerable. Red Cross parcels, in fact, were essential for the prisoners' diet as the Germans, assuming that these supplies would be available, kept the rations they provided to a bare minimum. The ready supply of cigarettes, chocolate, soap and coffee (real not ersatz) also gave the prisoners the capacity to trade with guards and the local population. Once in permanent camps in Germany, the other ranks were deployed on work detachments away from the main camps....

Western Front

Western Front   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,215 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of Mont St Quentin (north of Péronne) by 2nd Australian Division. Mont St Quentin was the key to the German defence of the line of the Somme. If it was lost the whole German position would be turned and a further retreat would become inevitable. The 2nd Division approached the bare slopes of the Mont on 2 September . Accompanied by a formidable artillery bombardment and skilfully using rifle grenades and trench-mortars to outflank German outpost positions, the troops stormed up the slopes and ejected the German Guards Division from the defences on the...

USSR

USSR   Reference library

Norman Davies, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Martin McCauley, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Martin McCauley, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Alexander Boyd, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, and M. R. D. Foot

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
28,175 words
Illustration(s):
8

...History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union 1941-45 , 6 Vols (Moscow, 1960 ff); Kravchenko: Ekonomika , pp. 125, 228, 351; Malafeev, A., Istoriia tsenoobrazovaniia v SSSR, 1917-1963 gg . (Moscow, 1964 ), p. 407. Production for civilian needs was obviously cut to a bare minimum, with these figures probably understating the full decline in the standard of living. Investment in housing decreased drastically during wartime and the consequences of the destruction and evacuation had to be suffered by the population for long after the war. Goods...

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