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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Social-Scientific Approaches

Social-Scientific Approaches   Reference library

Johanna Stiebert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,928 words

...Hebrew Bible . Minneapolis: Fortress, 2000. Rogerson, J. W. Anthropology and the Old Testament. Oxford: Blackwell, 1978. Rogerson, J. W. , and Judith M. Lieu , eds. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Rooke, Deborah W. “The Bare Facts: Gender and Nakedness in Leviticus 18.” In A Question of Sex? Gender and Difference in the Hebrew Bible and Beyond , edited by Deborah Rooke , pp. 20–38. Hebrew Bible Monographs 14. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Phoenix, 2009. Stiebert, Johanna . The Construction of Shame in...

Postcolonial Approaches

Postcolonial Approaches   Reference library

Tat-siong Benny Liew

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,735 words

...refers to a wide assortment of resources. She appeals, for example, to Althea Spencer Miller’s work on orality as corrective to colonial preferences for the literary and Spencer Miller’s humorous but subversive story about a Jamaican nanny, who, to protect her rebel colleagues, bares her behind to distract British soldiers and nonfatally absorb their bullets. Runions also refers to historical-critical scholarship to argue that there was, behind the book of Joshua, an earlier indigenous story about Rahab that functions like the nanny story. Removing Rahab’s...

Male-Female Sexuality

Male-Female Sexuality   Reference library

Rhiannon Graybill, Giulia Sissa, Bradford A. Kirkegaard, Yii-Jan Lin, Tirzah Meacham, and Kathy L. Gaca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,472 words

...a matter of honor: Prometheus deceives Zeus in the distribution of the portions of an ox. He offers him the inedible parts, the bare bones, hidden under a slice of glittering fat. This is insulting. Zeus gets frightfully angry and starts a series of retaliations that culminate with the confection of a “beautiful evil” ( kalon kakon ) in the likeness of immortal goddesses: the first mortal woman, gynē . Woman will now share the life of all men, introducing “women’s baneful deeds” ( mermera erga gunaikōn ) into their existence. Woman will be idle and yet avid...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...adopted by some defenders of pederasty was to concede the point that it was not practiced by animals and therefore was not grounded in Nature, but to make a virtue of it by arguing that pederasty was a mark of advanced civilization, a superior invention to improve upon the bare requirements of human subsistence (Lucian, Erotes 33–36). [ See also Education, subentry Greek World ; and Social Interaction, subentry Greek and Roman Worlds .] Bibliography Bethe, Erich . “Die dorische Knabenliebe: Ihre Ethik und ihre Idee.” Rheinisches Museum für...

Child, Lydia Maria

Child, Lydia Maria   Reference library

Chris Dixon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the World , a collection of writings from various religions. Finally achieving financial security late in life, during the 1870 s Child donated to a host of causes she deemed worthy of support. Lydia Maria Child died in 1880 . [ See also Antebellum Era ; Antebellum Reform ; Antislavery ; Woman Suffrage Movement ; and Women’s Rights Movement, Antebellum Era . ] bibliography Baer, Helene G. The Heart Is like Heaven: The Life of Lydia Maria Child . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1964. Karcher, Carolyn L. The First Woman in...

Dust Bowl

Dust Bowl   Reference library

Donald Worster

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...rapidly into the windy, drought-prone plains. Native grasses that had evolved a high degree of climatic resilience abruptly disappeared under the plow. For a while crops were abundant and profits high, but then began a record-breaking drought that withered the fields and left them bare. Severe but short-lived droughts recurred in the decades after the 1930 s, but none had the impact of the Dust Bowl years, leading many observers to conclude that farmer ingenuity and improved technology had made another disaster impossible. In truth, although a constant flow of...

Waqf, Women's Constructions of

Waqf, Women's Constructions of   Reference library

Mary Ann Fay

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,537 words

...from 20 to almost 37 percent of total donors. For example, Haim Gerber's ( 1983 ) analysis of waqf records from fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Edirne shows that women made 20 percent of the new waqf s. Gabriel Baer's ( 1983 ) analysis of the Istanbul register ( tahrir ) of 1546 shows that women made 36.8 percent of the new waqfs . Baer also cites evidence from eighteenth-century Aleppo showing that women made 36.3 percent of the waqf s, that in Jerusalem between 1805 and 1820 women accounted for 24 percent, and that in Jaffa during the entire...

Pirates

Pirates   Reference library

Joel H. Baer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Pirates, and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700–1750 . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1987. A groundbreaking, lavishly documented study of maritime laborers in conflict with mercantile capitalism and of the strategies for resistance that they pioneered. Joel H. ...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

Nancy Micklewright, Yuka Kadoi, and Diane Apostolos-Cappadona

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,695 words

.... London: Scorpion Publishing, 1989. Ali, Wijdan . Modern Islamic Art: Development and Continuity . Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1997. Arnold, Thomas W. Painting in Islam: A Study of the Place of Pictorial Art in Muslim Culture . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928. Baer, Eva . The Human Figure in Islamic Art: Inheritances and Islamic Transformations . Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda Publications, 2004. Diba, Layla S. , and Maryam Ekhtiar . Royal Persian Painting: The Qajar Epoch, 1785–1925 . London: I. B. Tauris, 1998. Gruber, Christiane J. , and ...

Medicine, Popular and Non-Western

Medicine, Popular and Non-Western   Reference library

Cullen Clark

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the twenty-first century, Americans continued their tradition of medical pluralism. [ See also Great Awakenings ; Health and Fitness ; Health and Healing, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries ; Hospitals and Dispensaries ; Midwifery ; and Religion . ] bibliography Baer, Hans A. Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America: Issues of Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Gender . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001. Barnes, Patricia, Eve Powell-Griner, Kim McFann, and Richard L. Nahin. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among...

Everyday Life

Everyday Life   Reference library

Jack Larkin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...life might soon be enacted in the virtual world. [ See also Automation and Computerization ; Automobiles ; Cities and Suburbs ; Clothing ; Communication Networks ; Consumption ; Electricity and Electrification ; Leisure ; Public Health ; Rural Life and Society ; Work ; and Working-Class Life and Society . ] bibliography Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South . Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Still the most comprehensive and insightful study of community, family, and ordinary life...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Michael B. Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...periodic illness, rather than long-term unemployment. In the best of times, they earned barely enough to feed and clothe a family, but seasonal labor demands, as well as shifts in the business cycle, often left them with no work at all. In and out of work, they alternated between bare self-sufficiency and dependence. Work-related accidents and sickness struck ordinary workers and their families frequently and with devastating impact. Because they had little or no insurance, a serious illness could devastate the capacity of families to support themselves; well...

Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Byron Cannon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,402 words

...may depend on youngsters to carry out diverse small services to further their business interests. Less established sellers typically engage in secondary or even tertiary markets, offering small miscellaneous items at streetside stalls or from makeshift displays on sidewalks or the bare ground. Women engaged in such trade are subject to very unpredictable conditions, not only in terms of extremely marginal chances for gaining a livelihood from their sales, but also because many such itinerant sales displays in urban areas are often subject to police controls and...

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