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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

political economy of health

political economy of health   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Hans Baer, Merrill Singer, and Ida Susser, for example, support “the creation of a democratic ecosocialist world system and the pursuit of health as a human right” (p. ix). Contemporary political economists of health have taken diverse paths, but they share the conviction that disease is socially produced and caused by structural factors. They point out that the biomedical and technological advances and investments of the past fifty years have not succeeded in preventing disease, improving overall health, or contributing to a better quality of life for many...

Gender and Science

Gender and Science   Reference library

Londa Schiebinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...argued that what is meant by sex should encompass a full continuum of human sexuality. More recently, Anne Fausto-Sterling published her “Bare Bones of Sex” ( 2005 ) and “Bare Bones of Race” ( 2008 ) to emphasize how biology is not purely physical but interacts with environment and culture to “shape the very bones that support us.” Her point is that a complex disease, such as osteoporosis, emerges over the life course in response to how biology and culture interact in “specific lived lives.” Fausto-Sterling sought to do away with dualisms—of...

medical community, the

medical community, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...so that ideas and decisions are based on evidence rather than intuition. These principles guide the creation and dissemination of behavior change programs and can help minimize the unintended negative effects of programs. Bibliography Brodie, M. , U. Foehr , V. Rideout , N. Baer , C. Miller , R. Flournoy , and D. Altman . “ Communicating Health Information through the Entertainment Media: A Study of the Television Drama ER Lends Support to the Notion That Americans Pick Up Information While Being Entertained. ” Health Affairs 20.1 (2001): 192–199....

Literature and Science

Literature and Science   Reference library

Priscilla Wald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...which marks an endpoint at the end of the sentence. The proliferation of meanings is not anarchic. A still life is still (yet) life. The life is in the artistry: the composition that leads to more active contemplation. This introductory “button” shows readers how to read associatively, attending to their own roles as viewers in creating the work of art and in generating the response. It places responsibility for creating art, making meaning, and seeing life differently onto the spectator—responsibility for seeing themselves in the act of seeing, which includes...

embryology

embryology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,488 words

...of two cells produced the unicellular fertilized egg that only then began dividing to form the embryo. This theory aroused great excitement because it explained the continuity of life by establishing a bond between generations through the transfer of some material substance from the parents to the new individual. Nineteenth-century embryology sought laws of development. Von Baer enumerated four laws, which account for his endorsement of epigenesis and the existence of different types of embryonic development, and therefore the organisations that he had...

teleology

teleology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
588 words

... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach , he argued that in an organism, each part acts both as means and end, according to a system of final causes apparently transmitted from one generation of organisms to the next. Nineteenth-century followers of Kant, such as embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer , pursued this kind of teleological thinking out of a concern for good science. Charles Darwin 's works represented a turning point in reflections on teleology. While abstaining from explicit attacks against teleological thinking, in books such as The Various Contrivances by...

orthogenesis

orthogenesis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
591 words

...determined by intrinsic forces. The expression generally is reserved for relatively long-term nonadaptive evolutionary trends. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Erasmus Darwin thought that the evolution of life involved an intrinsically driven tendency of organic forms to increase in complexity. Some orthogenetic visions, for example Karl Ernst von Baer 's, ground the tendency to form an orderly progression in ontogeny. The term was apparently introduced by the German biologist Theodore Eimer at a meeting of the International Zoological Congress in Leyden...

generation

generation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
715 words

...replaced “generation” as the central concept of the life sciences after Jean-Louis Prevost and Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas had shown in 1824–1825 the essential role of sperm fertilization and Karl Ernst von Baer had demonstrated in 1827 the mammalian ovum. Elizabeth B. Gasking , Investigations into Generation 1651–1828 (1967). John Farley , Gametes & Spores: Ideas about Sexual Reproduction 1750–1914 (1982). Jacques Roger , Buffon: A Life in Natural History (1997). Jacques Roger , The Life Sciences in Eighteenth-century French Thought (1998)....

ice age

ice age   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
576 words

...in the recent geological past. The evidence for the hypothesis was already well known. In northwestern Europe, the location of almost all early geological research, a thick layer of boulder clay covered the bedrock, huge stones (erratics) turned up far from their mother strata, bare rocks showed long, parallel scratches, and the remains of earlier beaches appeared well above existing sea levels. Until Agassiz, though, these manifestations had been put down to a vast flood. Since most naturalists still believed in the relative youth of the earth, they relied...

Biosphere from space

Biosphere from space   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,894 words

...the afternoon, when the air is drier and water loss would accelerate. They'll not start in the morning either, in times of drought. And when plants wilt, the vegetation index goes down. That can be interpreted as a symptom of dry soil, and therefore of reduced evaporation from the bare ground as well as the leaves. Large-scale field experiments in Kansas in 1987 and 1989 put these ideas to the test. The selected site was the Konza Prairie Reserve, in the Flint Hills, which has escaped the plough because it is so stony. The incumbent cow-and-calf ranchers...

Carbon cycle

Carbon cycle   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,112 words

...cycle Exactly how does it interact with the global climate? S o bare and rugged is the frozen lava near the summit of Hawaii's Mauna Loa volcano that astronauts trained there for visiting the Moon. On the northern slope, 3400 metres above sea level, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration runs a weather observatory where scientists can sample the clean air coming on the trade winds across 3000 kilometres of open ocean. Free from all regional and local pollution, and also from the disturbing influence of nearby vegetation, it's a good place...

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