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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

demography of the war

demography of the war   Reference library

J. M. Winter

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,549 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the boundary between civilian and military targets in warfare was obliterated. In Asia, as throughout occupied Europe, disease, famine, and indiscriminate bombardment of civilian populations produced a parallel human disaster, the dimensions of which can never be fully known. The bare outlines of this catastrophe are presented in Table 1. Over half of the 50 million men, women , and children who perished in the Second World War were civilians. Demography, Table 1: Approximate war-related deaths of major combatant nations in the Second World War Country...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

J. L. Granatstein

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Thus when the federal election was held on 11 June 1945 , fortuitously after the war in Europe had ended and before Canada's promise of a division for the Pacific war had time to be implemented. King's government was re-elected with 41% of the popular vote and 125 seats, a bare majority. In Quebec, however, King won 53 of 65 seats and, as one academic noted in an election analysis, ‘Quebec Saves Our King’. It was precisely true, though the Liberals did win more seats outside Quebec than any other party. 4. Canada–US relations Before the outbreak of the...

Navy, U.S

Navy, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Diplomatic Activities of U.S. Naval Officers, 1798–1883 , 1988. Kenneth Hagan , This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power , 1991. Christopher McKee , A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession: The Creation of the U.S. Naval Officer Corps, 1794–1815 , 1991. George Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 , 1994. Edward J. Marolda , By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the United States Navy and the War in Southeast Asia , 1994. Mark Shulman , Navalism and the Emergence of American Sea Power, 1882–1893 ,...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Sea , 1989. Jon Tetsuro Sumida , In Defence of Naval Supremacy , 1989. B.J.C. McKercher , ed., Arms Limitation and Disarmament , 1992. C.I. Hamilton , The Anglo‐French Naval Rivalry, 1840–1870 , 1993. Volker Berghahn , Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 , 1993. George W. Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power , 1994. Daniel Moran Arms Race: Nuclear Arms Race The United States, with Britain, developed atomic weapons during World War II and used them as a means to force Japan's early surrender. The first (and so far last) use of these weapons in...

Navy, U.S.

Navy, U.S.   Reference library

Mark R. Shulman, Timothy J. Lynch, Michael A. Palmer, Malcolm Muir, Malcolm Muir, John Lehman, Dani Holtz, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Rumsfeld, Donald ; September 11th Terrorist Attacks ; Spanish–American War (1898) ; Submarines and Submarine Warfare ; Terror, War on ; Truman, Harry S. ; Vietnam War (1960–1975) ; War of 1812 ; World War I (1914–1918) ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Baer, George W. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U. S. Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996. Daughan, George C. If by Sea: The Forging of the American Navy—From the Revolution to the War of 1812 . New York: Basic Books, 2008. Goodspeed, M. Hill ,...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...for the supervision of the imperial prisons and the walls of the palace. The support of the tagmata for iconoclasm is evidenced in their disruption of the Ecumenical Council of 786 in Nicaea when troops of the Scholai, the Exkoubitoi, and the other regiments threatened with bare swords the patriarch and bishops gathered in the Church of the Holy Apostles and broke up the council. Two other heavy cavalry regiments were added later, the Vigla and the Hikanatoi. The former was apparently created by Empress Irene (r. 780–802 ) for personal security as a...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...looked on the Iberian cavalcade itself as the secret to understanding a Spanish character that was formed as a consequence of almost constant military, linguistic, and cultural conflict. Though Hispanicists have increasingly distanced themselves from this dichotomy, its bare outlines are still visible in scholarship on Spanish military affairs that tends to view martial developments in the Peninsula as the result of national or European causes. Spanish Scholarship. Studies of Spanish military matters of the central Middle Ages have been severely...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...historical writing continued apace, although it came to be dominated by clergy who were more likely to be affiliated with an ecclesiastical house or church. Local histories complement national, even international, approaches. Many of the sources are actually annals or chronicles, bare-bones litanies of significant events that impinged on the consciousness of the writer tasked with keeping the record. That structure works to the modern historian’s advantage because the descriptions therein are more often free of the thematic doctoring that accompanies more...

Linnig, Egide

Linnig, Egide (1821–1860)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
450 words

... and Kortrijk . [ See also Art ; Artists, subentry Belgian ; and Painting .] Berko , Patrick , and Viviane Berko . Seascapes of Belgian Painters Born between 1750 and 1875 . Brussels: Knokke, 1984. Patrick Berko and Viviane Berko Translated from the Dutch by Selina Baring...

Pao Yue-kong

Pao Yue-kong (1918–1991)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
625 words

...expansion could not be handled by its own tonnage. Translating this belief into action relied on obtaining credit and working within the constraints of Japanese law. A shikumisen system gradually evolved, under which Japanese-built vessels were chartered to Japanese owners on a bare-boat basis rather than on a time basis. After Pao convinced all parties of the value of these arrangements, orders for 12.5 million tons were placed between 1965 and 1975 . These tactics, plus the rise in freight rates that followed the closure of the Suez Canal, saw Pao’s...

Caricature and Cartoons

Caricature and Cartoons   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,194 words

...on either side by women demanding payment for room, sundries, grog, and entertainment, Jack laments his condition: “I am hard up—not a quid left, or shot in the locker—to pay the fiddler—Mi Eyes—what a Squall, how it Whistles trough the Ratlines I must Braill up and Scudd under Bare Poles.” Caricatures and cartoons have often relied on stereotypes for political and propaganda uses. Over time, these stereotypes conveyed universally understood messages. During the Napoleonic Wars, when France and England were mortal enemies, the French Neoclassicist painter...

Shipping Industry

Shipping Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,695 words

...bankruptcy. Brown’s business was ranked alongside Rothschilds and Barings in his lifetime. The Brown firms still flourish today, while Kleinwort Benson and the Rathbones thrive as bankers, though no longer in the Quaker tradition. On the London scene, the Baring dynasty from Bremen , which came to England in 1717 , stood alongside the Jewish Rothschilds, who arrived around 1798 in Manchester with a network of brothers stationed strategically throughout Europe. The Barings helped the fledgling United States with the Louisiana purchase for $15...

Discipline and Punishment

Discipline and Punishment   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
5,901 words

...to the prescribed number of lashes, delivered by a boatswain’s mate (or a succession of them if the sentence was heavy) on his bared back with a cat-o’-nine-tails. On completion, he would be taken below and put under medical supervision. Flogging in this way was a brutal punishment, but it lasted only a short while, and the main aftermath was physical. There is much evidence that it was accepted as a fact of naval life and was generally taken as just. Moreover, the alternatives were limited: deprivation of liberty was difficult to manage within the...

Salvage

Salvage   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
4,398 words

...the pages of the law reports. Thus decisions on questions of interest to the wider maritime community may not reach the members of that community. The Committee of Lloyd’s has gone some way to meeting this point by publishing at regular intervals a digest of salvage cases with bare details of the issues raised and the amounts awarded. This can give some guidance to courts and other tribunals as to the modern thinking on these issues. The members of the panel of Lloyd’s arbitrators, currently seven in number, see each other’s awards and thus maintain...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,480 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the threats and hazards of an everchanging sea, as an escape from the alienated and mechanized conditions of modern life. Belloc’s essays seek to recapture the conditions of sail as an escape from the alienation of the passenger ship or cruise liner, as an escape from the places prepackaged by travel literature for consumption by tourists, and as an escape from an implicitly dystopic vision of shore life. His “Dedication to Maurice Baring,” with which The Cruise of the “Nona” begins, sets the tone. In this familiar address to a friend, Belloc recalls the...

Instrument Makers

Instrument Makers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
6,420 words

...R. T. Jonkers , Flanders had become a center for the manufacture of lodestones and compasses. There was also a group of twenty compass makers in Nuremberg , who in 1510 asked to form a separate guild, but their products seem to have been mainly, if not exclusively, the small bare-needle compasses used in sundials rather than the nautical variety. Early in the sixteenth century compass making was also established in the Iberian Peninsula. As elsewhere, the instrument was developed by metal- or woodworkers. By the second half of the sixteenth century there...

Unions

Unions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
19,172 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 1972 , Japanese shipowners began selling their Japanese-flag vessels abroad on a large scale, and then they chartered these same ships with seamen from developing countries on board (so-called charter-back ships). They also let out their Japanese-flag ships to foreigners on bare-boat charters and then rechartered the vessels from the foreigners, who made arrangements to man them with labor drawn from developing countries. Thus did Japanese shipowners push for the de-Japanization of crews from the earlier part of the 1970s. Zennikkai laid emphasis on...

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
35,913 words
Illustration(s):
9

...very limited budgets, using a mix of new and secondhand purchases with an increasing emphasis on local construction and support. [ See also Navies, Great Powers, subentry on British Isles, 1500 to the Present ; Piracy ; and Wars, Maritime, subentry on World Wars .] Baer, George W. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. One of the best single volume histories of the U.S. Navy. It provides an excellent summary of the navy’s role in the Asia-Pacific. Blechman, Barry M. , and ...

Wars, Maritime

Wars, Maritime   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
42,659 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Sergei ; Intelligence, subentry on Naval Intelligence ; Mountbatten, Louis ; Narcotics Trade ; Naval Diplomacy ; Navies, Great Powers, subentry An Overview ; Rickover, Hyman ; Strategy ; Tactics ; and Technology and Weapons, subentry 1850 to the Present .] Baer, George W . One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. Brown, David . The Royal Navy and the Falklands War . London: Leo Cooper; Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987. Cable, James . Gunboat Diplomacy...

Navies, Great Powers

Navies, Great Powers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
52,890 words
Illustration(s):
5

... subentry Naval Aviation ; Burke, Arleigh ; Halsey, William ; King, Ernest ; Leyte Gulf, Battle of ; Mahan, Alfred Thayer ; Maury, Matthew Fontaine ; Midway, Battle of ; Mobile Bay, Battle of ; Nimitz, Chester ; Rickover, Hyman ; San Diego ; and Wars, Maritime .] Baer, George . One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The United States Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. Beach, Edward L. The United States Navy: 200 Years . New York: Henry Holt, 1986. A valuable personal historical perspective by a professional naval...

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