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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Portio Congrua

Portio Congrua   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
324 words

...priests an appropriate part of the revenues. Thus, in the intention of the council Fathers, portio congrua did not have the pejorative meaning of the modern French portion congrue (“bare living”). On the contrary, it was a question of relieving the usually precarious financial position of incumbents. Because he was the titular of a church, the priest had his material life guaranteed, and the Carolingian councils had provided for an endowment for every newly founded church. In 1179 , the third Lateran council recalled the obligation of Bishops to...

David

David   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
551 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the figure of the Christ-king , he was also his prophet and forebear. We can differentiate between a juvenile David, shepherd or warrior, and an older David, king and psalmist. David could be represented beardless, wearing a simple tunic (exomis, leaving one side of his chest bare, in early Christian art; short peasant tunic in medieval art). He also often carried a shepherd's crook. Surrounded by his flock, he was the Good Shepherd. This Image sometimes recalls the ancient model of Orpheus. The shepherd's youth could equally apply to the warlike vigour...

Orthodoxy, Orthodox Churches

Orthodoxy, Orthodox Churches   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
539 words

...permanently in the presence of imperial officials. The apogee of this Orthodoxy (11th-12th cc., the age of Michael Cerularius ) declined after the sack of Constantinople by the crusaders in 1204 . The Church and imperial power of the East were then badly damaged and reduced to a bare living. This period also saw the rise to power of other centres of Orthodoxy, the Slavs and other Balkan peoples, who for two centuries would dispute the precedence of the patriarchate of Constantinople. Political emancipation corresponded most of the time to desires for...

Yves Hélori

Yves Hélori (1250 – 1303)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
558 words

...as was his habit, on the bare ground, ate bread dipped in water and refused wine . His reputation as a preacher became such that he was called from all over Breton-speaking Britanny. At the same time, Yves turned his paternal manor of Kermartin into a night-shelter for penniless pilgrims or the bedridden sick and a day-shelter for the destitute of the neighbourhood. At any hour he would converse with the inmates about the word of God . An adherent of voluntary poverty , Yves Hélori imposed on himself a fatiguing way of life: long nights of prayer ,...

stalls

stalls   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
750 words

...); the baroque period deployed entire scenes. Stalls appeared everywhere in Western Europe; among the earliest and most rudimentary known are those of Ratzeburg (Schleswig-Holstein), perhaps of the 1150s. Of the 13th c., those of Exeter , Poitiers , Lausanne; backs (still bare), sides and misericords became general; Villard de Honnecourt drew three elements of them. In their golden age, from the 14th to the 16th c., they were enriched in number, quality and representations: a “Savoyard” group and some others show the Apostles and Prophets at the ...

Ascesis, Asceticism

Ascesis, Asceticism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,535 words

...of sleep; sleeping on the bare ground; refusal to wash. The will to leave the world could lead the ascetic to withdraw to the top of a column ( stylites ) or up a tree (dendrites). It could be accompanied by a rejection of all that belonged to civilization: refusal of all meat, or even of all cooked food; life in the open air ( hypètres ); a life of wandering in desert places ( boskoi ). The perfection of ascesis, in certain texts ( Life of Mary the Egyptian ), could include nakedness and could come close to an animal life. We also see exercises of ...

architecture, Ecclesiastical

architecture, Ecclesiastical   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,400 words

...of construction with extreme precision, in response to the needs of a rational, functional common life that would favour the establishment of a perfect community. The earliest plan of an abbey complex is that of Sankt Gallen ( 820 ), and it did not vary substantially over time: the distribution of the monastic buildings next to the church (cloister, chapter house, kitchens, dormitories) was derived from the earliest Benedictine models, imposing a bare and functional monumentality. The subsequent Cluniac and Cistercian reforms also conformed to the...

cross, crucifix, crucifixion

cross, crucifix, crucifixion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,638 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Christian art of the West, the representation of the cross seems at first sight preponderant in every period. But on examination, the situation is more complex and a number of markers allow us to propose a fairly precise periodization. In the 2nd and 3rd cc., we generally see bare crosses; from the 4th to the 12th c., crucifixes and Crucifixions also celebrate the Majesty of Christ ; after the first third of the 12th c., representations evolve towards the anecdotal genre of the story of Christ's Passion , the idea of his kingship giving way to that of ...

Holy Land

Holy Land   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,510 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Europe, ended by opposing to the role of the historical Holy Land a “metahistorical Holy Land”: any altar on which the divine sacrifice was celebrated was in reality an authentic Calvary on which Christ was truly immolated: what need was there to travel overseas to visit a bare rock, an empty sepulchre? These voices were joined to an age-old mystical tradition, which had always deprecated pilgrimage as an occasion of temptation and sin rather than of sanctification. And, from the 13th c., the Popes had conceded to a number of Western sanctuaries...

Anselm of Canterbury

Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,925 words

...is only a simple vigilant attention to the Paschal Cross of Jesus as event of God 's gift, the gift to man of the life given by the Son of God. The Cross, on which was consummated a life fully given to others, crosses out, erases every speculative attempt to integrate it or situate it in some all-enveloping vision. It denounces as a contradictory idolatry every effort of thought to circumscribe it under a greater horizon. But, in laying bare on its disfigured figure what violent man has made of man in the name of his idols, in manifesting the death-dealing...

Hermoniakos, Constantine

Hermoniakos, Constantine   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
216 words

.... His intent was to make Homer clear for his contemporaries. In some places he transcribes Homer almost word for word, elsewhere he gives little more than the bare outlines of the plot, avoiding most of the scenes involving the Olympian gods though widely using Homeric similes. He also uses the Chronike Synopsis of Constantine Manasses and shows a slight acquaintance with one play each of Euripides and Sophocles . His own contributions are largely confined to occasional moralizing comments, passages of alliteration and anachronisms; e.g., Achilles ...

Faculty

Faculty   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
474 words

...Persons in eternal circuminsession , a break with Peter Lombard who relegates the Augustinian triad to three organ-faculties ( vires ). Later writers would ignore this important restatement and confine themselves to subtleties called “formal reasons”. Descartes returned to the bare modalism of Alcuin . Fidèle d'Eysden, “ La distinction de la substance et de ses puissances d'opération d'après saint Bonaventure ”, EtFr , 4, 1954, 5-23, 147-171. John of La Rochelle , Tractatus de divisione multiplici potentiarum animae , P. Michaud-Quantin (ed.), Paris,...

Engelberg, Burkhard

Engelberg, Burkhard (c. 1450)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst). Bibliography N. Lieb : ‘Burkhard Engelberg’, Lebensbild. Bayer. Schwaben , iii (1954), pp. 117–52 J. Julier : Studien zur spätgotischen Baukunst am Oberrhein , Heidelberger Kunstgeschichtliche Abhandlungen, n. s., xiii (Heidelberg, 1978) W. Baer , ed.: Augsburger Stadtlexikon (Augsburg, 1985), p. 97 F. Bischoff : Burkhard Engelberg und die süddeutsche Architektur um 1500: Anmerkungen zur sozialen Stellung und Arbeitsweise spätgotischer Steinmetzen und Werkmeister (diss., U. Bamberg, 1987) F. Bischoff : ‘Burkhard Engelberg...

Heintz

Heintz   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... ( c. ? 1585 ; Berne, Hist. Mus.) was carved by Heintz, it would show that he had maintained contacts with his north-Italian homeland, where saint figures were produced that have a realistic character very close to that of the Berne sculpture. Bibliography Thieme–Becker C. H. Baer : Die Künstdenkmäler des Kantons Basel-Stadt, i: Vorgeschichtliche, römische und fränkische Zeit; Geschichte und Stadtbild; Befestigungen, Areal und Rheinbrücke; Rathaus und Staatsarchiv , Kstdkml. Schweiz (Basle, 1932), pp. 352, 364, 441–5 L. Mojon : Die Künstdenkmäler des Kantons...

Jews in the Iberian Peninsula

Jews in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,144 words

...their Spanish counterparts. The formation of the Portuguese converso, or *‘Marrano’ , community led to the revival of inquisitorial power and influence throughout Iberia and the Iberian world for several centuries. Jonathan S. Ray E. Ashtor , The Jews of Moslem Spain (1973). Y. Baer , A History of the Jews in Christian Spain (1961). H. Beinart , The Sephardi Legacy , 2 vols (1988). L. S. Fernández , Judíos españoles de la edad media (1980). M. Ferro-Tavares , Os Judeus em Portugal no Século XV ...

Alcobaça Abbey

Alcobaça Abbey   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
991 words
Illustration(s):
1

...explain the buttressing of the aisle walls and the treatment of the main arcade. Massive cruciform piers support chamfered corbels, from which the vault supports rise. In the absence of the original choir-screens, this arrangement creates a space in which the present austerity of bare stone is powerfully asserted. The rib vaulting of the aisles and transepts creates an impression of great lightness in relation to the thickness of the walls. The building is lit from the aisles and Alcobaça Abbey.  View of the nave, begun 1158. Photo credit: Mathieu Glachant...

Ivory

Ivory   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...: Les ivoires gothiques français (Paris, 1924) T. K. Penniman : Pictures of Ivory and Other Animal Teeth, Bone, and Antler, Occasional Papers on Technology , v (Oxford, 1952) H. Hodges : Artifacts (London, 1964) C. I. A. Ritchie : Ivory Carving (London, 1969) N. S. Baer and L. J. Majewski : ‘Ivory and Related Materials’, A. & Archaeol. Tech. Abstr. , viii/2 (1970), pp. 229–72 R. Silverberg : Mammoths, Mastodons and Man (London, 1970) H. J. Plenderleith and A. E. A. Werner : The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art (Oxford, 1971)...

Francis of Assisi

Francis of Assisi (1181)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,355 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the poor and to churches, Francis renounced his Property and put himself under the protection of Bishop Guido of Assisi as a Penitent , i.e. a layman engaged in the religious life. In February 1208 , he became conscious of his true vocation while hearing a priest read the passage of St Matthew's gospel (Mt 10, 7-16) in which the apostles are sent out on a mission, bare-foot and without money, and he decided to live in evangelical Poverty . Keeping only a single tunic and replacing his belt by a simple cord, he called his fellow-citizens to ...

Scotland, Ireland, Wales: late medieval Ireland 1166–1534

Scotland, Ireland, Wales: late medieval Ireland 1166–1534   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,519 words
Illustration(s):
1

...invasion dealt a grave blow to *English Ireland . In the later 14th century, the *Gaelic recovery gathered further momentum, but increasingly it was characterized by a cultural revival rather than a territorial reconquest. 3. Frontiers and middle ground The Bruce invasion laid bare the full extent of the national animus that had been aroused by the extension of English power to Ireland. The ‘Remonstrance of the Irish Princes’ ( 1317 ), addressed to *Pope John XXII , speaks of ‘relentless hatred and incessant wars’ between natives and newcomers. Historians...

Basle

Basle   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...just south of the present one. The church (rest. 1975–81) has a three-aisled nave with a well-lit choir five bays long. Since 1894 it has housed the Historisches Museum, with an extensive collection of ecclesiastical art including the cathedral treasury. Bibliography LM C. H. Baer : Die Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Basel-Stadt , Kstdkml. Schweiz, i (Basle, 1932, rev. 1971) C. A. Müller : Die stadtbefestigung von Basel : beschreibung der wehranlagen nach alten plänen und bildern (Basle, 1956) M. Alioth , U. Barth , and D. Huber : Basler Stadtgeschichte...

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