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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

demography of the war

demography of the war   Reference library

J. M. Winter

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,549 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the boundary between civilian and military targets in warfare was obliterated. In Asia, as throughout occupied Europe, disease, famine, and indiscriminate bombardment of civilian populations produced a parallel human disaster, the dimensions of which can never be fully known. The bare outlines of this catastrophe are presented in Table 1. Over half of the 50 million men, women , and children who perished in the Second World War were civilians. Demography, Table 1: Approximate war-related deaths of major combatant nations in the Second World War Country...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

J. L. Granatstein

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Thus when the federal election was held on 11 June 1945 , fortuitously after the war in Europe had ended and before Canada's promise of a division for the Pacific war had time to be implemented. King's government was re-elected with 41% of the popular vote and 125 seats, a bare majority. In Quebec, however, King won 53 of 65 seats and, as one academic noted in an election analysis, ‘Quebec Saves Our King’. It was precisely true, though the Liberals did win more seats outside Quebec than any other party. 4. Canada–US relations Before the outbreak of the...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a good ‘second eleven’. In keeping with gentlemen-amateur traditions, these composers appeared to lack the visionary single-mindedness which activated their continental contemporaries. Though they were no feebler than their immediate predecessors, their limitations were now laid bare by contrast: creative impotence was openly mocked by fecundity throughout Europe. Only such craftsmen as Broadwood, Dodd, and Tubbs, and a few performers, particularly women, were truly fit to join the newly exalted company of musicians [ see *women musicians and composers ]....

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...garden and a grave.’ And though his central focus is on the process of becoming a poet, he voices the links between the expansion of a global empire, presented as a frightening terrain of silent bats and dark scorpions, and a transformed locality left behind, where ‘even the bare-worn common is denied’. In this population movement from the country to the city, and from city to parts foreign, many of the sources for the nostalgic myth of rural England were generated. The intensity of capitalist production in the countryside in Britain precluded the absolute...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,256 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...procedure in accordance with the Christian Marriage Act 1892 . With the exception of Azad Kashmir, all zones of Pakistan make divorce subject to forms of arbitration. In Azad Kashmir the ‘bare talaq ’, a form of divorce in which a husband can sever a relationship with a triple declaration of the phrase ‘I divorce thee’, still has practitioners. The oral quality of the bare talaq decree may make a paper trail difficult to find. Civil courts can grant Christians a divorce in Pakistan, and copies of a specific case ruling can be obtained from the court. Many...

Women Local and Family Historians

Women Local and Family Historians   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,407 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Their Posterity ( 1930 ). Practicalities were characteristically in the forefront of her mind, causing her often to cast ‘a lingering thought after the old family when I move about their kitchen’. Another remarkable example of a pedigree, showing determination to breathe life into bare names, is that of the Tempest family of Broughton, Craven, Yorkshire, by Eleanor Blanche Tempest ( 1873–1928 ). On every large page of the family tree, documents are summarized in minuscule handwriting beside the names (British Library, Add. MS 40670). Women have frequently...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,400 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for social purposes. For centuries, the parish church served also as a village hall, a centre of social life, and the administrative centre for much †local government ( see the poor ; chapel‐of‐ease ; churchwardens’ accounts ; parish registers ). The interiors of medieval parish churches were very different in appearance from what they are now. The first impression upon entering would have been of a blaze of colour. Instead of being bare stone, the walls would have been plastered over and decorated with paintings, which were used both for devotional...

Guizhou Province

Guizhou Province (2007)   Reference library

Ronald David HILL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...(68,000 square miles, about the size of Uruguay), of which only 4,900 square kilometers (1,982 square miles) are under cultivation. Much land is habitable only at low densities or not at all. About 75 percent of the land is hills and mountains, mostly limestone. About 3 percent is bare rock. So limited is agricultural land that each acre must support twenty farm people. Each acre, even on slopes, must be cropped, on average, 1.8 times a year. Population pressure results in 40 percent of the total land being seriously eroded. About 63 percent of Guizhou’s workers...

Qiú Yīng

Qiú Yīng (1494–1552)   Reference library

Ellen Johnston LAING

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,587 words
Illustration(s):
3

...situations. This is already evident in his two early paintings of bare-chested men ( Zhuangzi and Thatched Hut under Bamboo and Wutong Trees ). In later times, Qiu continued his “slice of life” scenes in at least three paintings. In the undated handscroll Picking Lotus (present location unknown), a man reclines in a thatched kiosk at the edge of a lotus pond; he is barefoot, one leg is propped on the other knee; his chest and belly are exposed and the sleeve of his robe is rolled up to bare his arm. A neglected lute lies nearby. A servant wearing thin...

WANG Xizhi

WANG Xizhi (303?–379? ce)   Reference library

Fatima WU

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...minister’s residence to select the right man for his daughter. Young men of letters flocked to the palace dressed in their best clothes. Wang, not anxious to please, arrived late in casual clothing. He managed to find a seat near a bed. Because of the heat, he untied his belt and bared his abdomen. Such behavior marked him as different from the rest, and he left an impression of spontaneity on those who were present. When Shi heard this report, he decided to give Wang his daughter’s hand. Following the Confucian tradition, Wang received a military position at...

ZHAO Ziyang

ZHAO Ziyang (1919–2005)   Reference library

Kirk W. LARSEN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...He remained a member of the CCP but was almost completely absent from public life until his death. Many events have been held in the world’s largest public square, but it is the student protests of June 1989 , when Zhao Ziyang supported and then tried to calm those camped in the Square, that continue to resonant. photo by joan lebold cohen. Zhao died in January 2005 at the age of eighty-five. The PRC government acknowledged Zhao’s death but kept memorials to a bare minimum, perhaps in fear that widespread mourning of Zhao’s passing might lead to...

♂ Chén Kǎigē

♂ Chén Kǎigē (1952)   Reference library

Haomin GONG

Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,671 words
Illustration(s):
1

...after several weeks of protests for more democratization, the film presented, in accordance with the gloomy atmosphere then shrouding China, the loneliness and desolation of human beings trapped in a spiritual void. This early stage in Chen's filmmaking, characterized by bare stories, stylized audio and aural presentation, philosophic ideas, and the challenge to the establishment, came to a conclusion in the early 1990s. These films, paradoxically, were direct products of the social system of which they were so critical; the not-yet-commercialized...

Navy, U.S

Navy, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Diplomatic Activities of U.S. Naval Officers, 1798–1883 , 1988. Kenneth Hagan , This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power , 1991. Christopher McKee , A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession: The Creation of the U.S. Naval Officer Corps, 1794–1815 , 1991. George Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 , 1994. Edward J. Marolda , By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the United States Navy and the War in Southeast Asia , 1994. Mark Shulman , Navalism and the Emergence of American Sea Power, 1882–1893 ,...

Fù Hǎo

Fù Hǎo   Reference library

Sherry J. MOU

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,086 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with neighboring states throughout the dynasty continued advancing its development in bronze weaponry, including axes, long-handled axes, arrowheads, spears, sabers, some shields, and parts of carriages. The bronze ritual vessels produced toward the end of the Shang dynasty bare unprecedentedly elegant, intricate designs of stylized patterns and animal shapes. Also found among the oracle bone inscriptions are other records of technologies such as pottery, astronomy (solar and lunar eclipses and calendar calculations), mathematics (concepts of even, odd,...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Sea , 1989. Jon Tetsuro Sumida , In Defence of Naval Supremacy , 1989. B.J.C. McKercher , ed., Arms Limitation and Disarmament , 1992. C.I. Hamilton , The Anglo‐French Naval Rivalry, 1840–1870 , 1993. Volker Berghahn , Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 , 1993. George W. Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power , 1994. Daniel Moran Arms Race: Nuclear Arms Race The United States, with Britain, developed atomic weapons during World War II and used them as a means to force Japan's early surrender. The first (and so far last) use of these weapons in...

Civil Service Examinations

Civil Service Examinations   Reference library

Benjamin A. ELMAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...civil service examinations in his many stories that parodied the examination system. His most famous portrait sketched “The Seven Likenesses of a Candidate”: A licentiate taking the provincial examination may be likened to seven things. When entering the examination hall, bare-footed and carrying a basket, he is like a beggar. At roll-call time, being shouted at by officials and abused by their subordinates, he is like a prisoner. When writing in his cell, with his head and feet sticking out of the booth, he is like a cold bee late in autumn. Upon...

Navy, U.S.

Navy, U.S.   Reference library

Mark R. Shulman, Timothy J. Lynch, Michael A. Palmer, Malcolm Muir, Malcolm Muir, John Lehman, Dani Holtz, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Rumsfeld, Donald ; September 11th Terrorist Attacks ; Spanish–American War (1898) ; Submarines and Submarine Warfare ; Terror, War on ; Truman, Harry S. ; Vietnam War (1960–1975) ; War of 1812 ; World War I (1914–1918) ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Baer, George W. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U. S. Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996. Daughan, George C. If by Sea: The Forging of the American Navy—From the Revolution to the War of 1812 . New York: Basic Books, 2008. Goodspeed, M. Hill ,...

Wáng Mǎng

Wáng Mǎng (45 bce–23 ce)   Reference library

John E. WILLS, Jr.

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,634 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A copy of a tedious classicizing state document may go on for several pages, followed by a cryptic reference to a female rebel leader or to abuses of military conscription. Ban Gu sometimes elaborates on Wang Mang’s tyranny, manipulation, and hypocrisy, but sometimes makes only a bare statement. What should be inferred, for example, of those 487,572 petitions urging that Wang accept high honors? An excellent census of the empire in 2 ce yielded a total population of about 57 million. Thus petitions were received from almost one in a hundred of all the...

Xú Xiákè

Xú Xiákè (1587–1641)   Reference library

Julian WARD

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,452 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Man of His Times It is important to remember that Xu Xiake was not operating in a vacuum; his life and work must be considered in the context of the customs of his age. Like Wang Shixing, for example, he commented adversely on the customs of the minority peoples of the southwest. Wang Shixing described the Yáo 傜 ‎ people as “the most evil and hard to cultivate” and the Luóluó 罗罗 ‎ as being “constantly grubby from not washing and the men and women went round in bare feet” ( Wang 1993 , 214–219). In a similar vein, Xu Xiake, while in Téngyuè 腾越 ‎ in western...

Sīmǎ Qiān

Sīmǎ Qiān (145–86 bce)   Reference library

Grant HARDY

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,572 words
Illustration(s):
2

...later served as palace secretary. He accompanied the emperor on several journeys. After his death, his grandson (through a daughter) worked to publicize his history, and within a century the Shiji was widely admired. The Shiji That is about all we know of Sima Qian’s life, but the bare facts of his biography do not explain why he is so important in Chinese history. For that we must turn to the Shiji itself and explore what he accomplished with his book and what he had hoped to achieve. By looking for clues in his writings, we can construct an...

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