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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Arab conquest

Arab conquest   Reference library

Matthew Edwards and Andrew Marsham

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in CambHistIran IV, 1–56. Arab conquest, Spain Conquest, in 711, of the majority of the Iberian Peninsula by a North African army . Medieval accounts of this conquest were subject to later reworking to such a degree that it is impossible to reconstruct events beyond a bare outline: in 711, a force from North Africa overthrew the Visigothic King Roderic , and shortly thereafter a succession of governors sent from Damascus began using Arabic lead seals (with, alas, minimal information beyond terms related to division of loot) and minting gold ...

historiography, Roman

historiography, Roman   Reference library

Christopher Brendan Reginald Pelling

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,986 words

...much to shape the Roman view of history). Another aspect, as Cicero ( De or. 2. 51–3) ruefully observed, was the evocation of traditional Roman annales ( see annals ). Writers may only rarely have consulted the annales maximi themselves, but the texture of such material—bare lists of omens, magistrates, triumphs, etc.—was still familiar; Cato fr. 77 and Sempronius Asellio frs. 1–2 (both ed. Peter) protested at the historical inadequacy of such catalogues, but versions of these lists figured even in the developed genre, usually conferring an aura of...

Archimedes

Archimedes (c.287–212bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
917 words

...scientist of antiquity. The little known about Archimedes’ life comes mostly from his own writings. His father Phidias was an astronomer. Archimedes was probably not an aristocrat, although he associated with Hiero II of Syracuse. He corresponded extensively with astronomers and mathematicians based in Alexandria, but there is no record that he ever left Syracuse. His death in the Roman siege of Syracuse became a famous episode in the Roman conquest and appropriation of Greek culture. From these bare facts legends later arose: that he invented the Archimedes...

Fortune

Fortune   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,658 words

...power to promote conquest or fecundity may be represented in the lectisternium sculpture of the two Fortunae of Antium: respectively, a warrior virgin with one breast bared to resemble an Amazon, and a fecund matrona . In some versions, where the heads of both Fortunae remain intact, the virgin wears a helmet and the matrona the headdress of a married woman. Alternatively the bare-breasted Amazon may simply represent conquest through marriage, for the transition from virgin to mother is underlined by the serpent symbol of fertility on what is clearly...

historiography, Roman

historiography, Roman   Reference library

Christopher Brendan Reginald Pelling

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,674 words

... Ennius , who did much to shape the Roman view of history). Another aspect, as Cicero ( De or. 2. 51–3) ruefully observed, was the evocation of traditional Roman annales . Writers may only rarely have consulted the annales maximi themselves, but the texture of such material—bare lists of omens, magistrates, triumphs, etc.—was still familiar; Cato fr. 77 and Sempronius Asellio frs. 1–2 (both ed. Peter) protested at the historical inadequacy of such catalogues, but versions of these lists figured even in the developed genre, usually conferring an aura of...

Euphronios

Euphronios (c. 520–c. 500bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...interest in anatomy. Euphronios ’ paintings generally depict heroic scenes or scenes of Athenian daily life. His depictions of Herakles are especially memorable. Louvre G 103 shows Herakles Wrestling with Antaeus . His right arm is under the giant’s left armpit, his left around his neck, hands gripped together tightly. Euphronios has brilliantly contrasted the hero’s neat hair and beard and tense profile with the giant’s dishevelled hair and beard, bared teeth and helpless frontal pose, probably deliberately juxtaposing Herakles’ straining right foot with...

Plotinus

Plotinus (ad 205–269)   Reference library

Erik Robertson Dodds and John Myles Dillon

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,534 words

...as a series of concentric circles resulting from the expansion of the One. Each of these circles stands in a relation of timeless dependence to that immediately within it, which is in this sense its ‘cause’; the term describes a logical relationship, not an historical event. Bare Matter (ὕλη) is represented by the circumference of the outermost circle: it is the limiting case of reality, the last consequence of the expansion of the One, and so possesses only the ideal existence of a boundary. Between the One and Matter lie three descending grades of...

Exekias

Exekias (c. 540–c. 520bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,693 words
Illustration(s):
2

...). The splendidly dressed pair sit opposite each other intent on the game, with their shields framing the picture. Inscriptions provide their names and the results of their throws (Achilles 4, Ajax 3), but, even without these, it is clear that Achilles will win. Thus, while the bare-headed Ajax hunches forward tensely, gripping his two spears tightly together, Achilles sits up straighter and seems grander in his tall, plumed helmet. The subject was new and Exekias ’ version was copied by his contemporaries and immediate successors. Although Achilles’...

Heracles

Heracles   Reference library

Albert Schachter

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,894 words

...the bare bones of the story already in Homer, Il. 14. 323–4). Legends arose early of his epic feats, and they were added to constantly throughout antiquity. These stories may have played a part in the transformation of Heracles from hero (i.e. a deity of mortal origin, who, after death, exercised power over a limited geographical area, his influence residing in his mortal remains) to god (a deity, immortal, whose power is not limited geographically). See hero-cult . Outside the cycle of the Labours (see below), the chief events of Heracles' life were as...

Heracles

Heracles   Reference library

Albert Schachter

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,703 words
Illustration(s):
1

...twin: the bare bones of the story already in Homer, Il. 14. 323–4). Legends arose early of his epic feats, and they were added to constantly throughout antiquity. These stories may have played a part in the transformation of Heracles from hero (i.e. a deity of mortal origin, who, after death, exercised power over a limited geographical area, his influence residing in his mortal remains) to god (a deity, immortal, whose power is not limited geographically). Outside the cycle of the Labours (see below), the chief events of Heracles’ life were as follows:...

Tanagra

Tanagra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,513 words
Illustration(s):
2

...appear to have been Dionysos and Hermes, whose cult statue was the work of the Athenian sculptor Kalamis; a temple at nearby Soros dedicated to the mother of the gods was excavated in 2002 . The only ancient building in Tanagra readily identifiable today is the theatre, the bare outline of which can be discerned in the south-west sector of the city. To the north, the ruins of the gymnasium have been identified, famous in Pausanias’ time for housing a painting depicting Korinna tying her hair with a ribbon for the victory she won over Pindar at ...

Kos

Kos   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,424 words

...sculptures for an altar on the island (Herondas: Mimes , IV.23). Fragments of it perhaps survive (Istanbul, Archaeol. Mus.), while a group representing Asklepios with his Family ( Moscow , Pushkin Mus. F.A.) may recall another work by the brothers. An over life-size statue of a bearded man with bare right shoulder and weight resting on one leg, his face individualized with small eyes, heavy brows and cropped hair (Kos, Archaeol. Mus.) may be a portrait of Hippokrates, the famous Koan physician ( 469–399 bc ). However, it does not resemble an accepted...

Terence (RE 36)

Terence (RE 36)   Reference library

Peter George McCarthy Brown

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,415 words

...the spectators about the background to the plot ( see argumentum ). It has been suggested that he preferred to exploit effects of surprise rather than irony and to involve his audience more directly in the emotions of the characters (most notably in Hecyra , where it is laid bare how women are misunderstood, maligned, and mistreated by men). But the scope for ironic effect varies from play to play; in some cases he includes essential background information in the mouths of the characters at an early stage. It seems more likely that he dispensed with...

Terence

Terence   Reference library

Peter George McCarthy Brown

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...never used one to tell the spectators about the background to the plot. It has been suggested that he preferred to exploit effects of surprise rather than irony and to involve his audience more directly in the emotions of the characters (most notably in Hecyra , where it is laid bare how women are misunderstood, maligned, and mistreated by men). But the scope for ironic effect varies from play to play; in some cases he includes essential background information in the mouths of the characters at an early stage. It seems more likely that he dispensed with...

Atreus, House of

Atreus, House of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,733 words
Illustration(s):
1

...offering from Clytemnestra to his father's grave; Clytemnestra had had a dream that appeared to predict her own death. In order to gain entry to the house, a disguised Orestes brings feigned news of his own death. He kills Aegisthus, yet hesitates to strike Clytemnestra after she bares her breast to remind him of his obligation to her as a mother. Pylades reminds him that he must carry out the god's command ( 900–902 ), but as soon as he does so, Orestes is pursued by his mother's avenging deities, the Erinyes, from the chthnonic generation of gods that preceded...

Dionysus

Dionysus ((Linear B Diwonusos))   Reference library

Albert Henrichs

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,542 words

...take a comparative approach to the psychological and anthropological aspects of maenadic ritual and behaviour, but they ignored the fundamental distinction between myth and ritual . In poetry and vase-painting, Dionysus and his mythical maenads tear apart live animals with their bare hands ( sparagmos ) and eat them raw ( ōmophagia ). But the divinely inflicted madness of myth was not a blueprint for actual rites, and the notion that maenadism ‘swept over Greece like wildfire’ (Rohde, Nilsson, Dodds) is a Romantic construct that has now been abandoned along...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,339 words
Illustration(s):
3

...323 bce , not yet thirty-three years old. The wars of succession among Alexander's marshals wiped out the Argead dynasty of Macedonia and fragmented the empire into a growing number of rival Hellenistic kingdoms. In his own lifetime, Alexander was portrayed brandishing in his bare hand the lightning bolt of Zeus. By deeds and divine descent, by doing as much or more as any of his Homeric heroes, by turning the drift of Western civilization back east as not even Philip could have done, Alexander claimed divinity. We may justly demur and decry the man a...

Crafts and Artisans

Crafts and Artisans   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,395 words
Illustration(s):
1

...god is often portrayed at his forge completing the new armor for Achilles with Thetis, Achilles’ mother, standing by—as depicted, for example, in the interior of the Berlin Foundry Cup. An attribute of Hephaestus in Greek art is the exomis, or short chiton, worn with one shoulder bare—the typical garb of workers. For all his admired work, Hephaestus, like his mortal counterparts, was seen as marginalized, an outsider among the pantheon of gods. Most notably, he is represented as lame. Vases also depict Hephaestus on muleback, unable to walk on his own, as he,...

Dionysus

Dionysus (Linear B Diwonusos, Homeric Διώνυσος, Aeolic Ζόννυσσος, Attic Διόνυσος)   Reference library

Albert Henrichs

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,125 words

...to take a comparative approach to the psychological and anthropological aspects of maenadic ritual and behaviour, but they ignored the fundamental distinction between myth and ritual. In poetry and vase-painting, Dionysus and his mythical maenads tear apart live animals with their bare hands ( sparagmos ) and eat them raw ( omophagia ). But the divinely inflicted madness of myth was not a blueprint for actual rites, and the notion that maenadism ‘swept over Greece like wildfire’ (Rohde, Nilsson, Dodds) is a Romantic construct that has now been abandoned along...

Personification in Art

Personification in Art   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,398 words

...century ce . Cancelleria Relief frieze A, from a discarded Flavian monument (90s ce ), shows Victoria (Victory) at the head of an imperial procession that includes Roma or Virtus (Virtue) with the emperor, followed by the bearded Genius Senatus (Spirit of the Senate) and the bare-chested Genius Populi Romani (Spirit of the People of Rome). This last pair is important to the emperor, who derives his power from these groups. Roman imperial coins often depict personifications on their reverses. Some replicate famous Greek or Roman statues, such as the Tyche...

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