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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Nerab Inscriptions

Nerab Inscriptions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,518 words

...leaving his left shoulder bare, reaches to his bare feet. He is wearing a round cap and in his left hand he grasps some folded fabric, possibly fringed. The text surrounds his head and then continues across the bottom of his robe from the knee down: Sin-zer-ibni, priest of Śaḥr in Nerab, deceased. And this is his image and his sarcophagus (?). Whoever you are, should you carry off (?) this image and the sarcophagus (?) from its place, may Śaḥr and Shamash and Nikkal and Nusk tear out your name and your place from life, and may they kill you with a nasty...

Pools

Pools   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
950 words

...An impermeable material was inserted between the stones for reinforcement and to ensure against seepage. A thick layer of plaster applied to the walls after their construction prevented percolation of the water; plaster was also applied to a pool's floor, which often was smooth, bare rock. The corners of the pool were usually curved or formed by two obtuse angles to prevent cracks from developing at weak spots in its perimeter. Many pools were built in low-lying areas, such as riverbeds, whose topography facilitated construction, as well as the drainage of...

Umayyad Caliphate

Umayyad Caliphate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,342 words

....] Bibliography Almagro Basch, Martin , et al. Qusayr' Amra: Residencia y Baños Omeyas en el Desierto de Jordania . Madrid, 1975. Almagro Gorbea, Antonio . El Palacio Omeya de Amman , vol. 1, La arquitectura . Madrid, 1983. Baer, Eva . “Khirbat al- Mafdjar.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam , new ed., vol. 5, pp. 10–17. Leiden, 1960–. Baer, Eva . “Khirbat al- Minya.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam , new ed., vol. 5, p. 17. Leiden, 1960–. Bisheh, Ghazi . “ Excavations at Qaṣr al-Ḥallabat, 1979. ” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 24 (1980): 69–77....

Demography

Demography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,767 words

...basket, more area was needed—for vegetables, fruits, legumes, wine, and oil. A certain amount of land also was required for growing fibers for textiles, mostly flax. It is difficult to estimate accurately how much land was needed for these crops, but it seems that 0.4 ha is the bare minimum. Thus, the minimum area necessary to feed one person is one hectare (2.5 acres). Of the 2,600,000 ha (6,500,000 acres) of Western Palestine, only 937,000 ha are cultivable. For purposes of computation and because a certain amount of arable land has deteriorated in the last...

Amathus

Amathus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,755 words

...and the majority of the population was made up of “Eteocypriots.” To the arguments that result from the studies already published one must add the discovery In 1992 , in the west part of the necropolis by the edge of the sea, of a great mass of burials in vases placed on the bare earth. These hundreds of vases, which contain the remains of children or adults, seem to date between the end of Cypro-Geometric and the Cypro-Archaic. This was very probably the Phoenician necropolis of Amathus. In the fifth and fourth centuries, when Cyprus was a part of the...

Madaba

Madaba   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,023 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by his ministers and by a servant who holds his mount by the bridle. In a second figurative panel, the goddess Aphrodite, seated on a throne next to Adonis, threatens with her sandal a winged Eros, who is being presented to her by a Grace. A second Eros supports Aphrodite's bare foot, while a third Eros looks on and a fourth is intent on emptying a basket full of flowers representing beans. A second Grace grasps a foot of still another Eros, who takes refuge among the branches of a tree, and a third Grace runs after the sixth Eros. A peasant girl coming...

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,514 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the 'ud , predecessor of the European lute. Zither. The zither type is actually nonexistent in the Near East, and information on this chordophone type, often also called psaltery ( psalteria , from Gk., psalmos , “finger,” because in antiquity their strings were plucked with bare fingers) is scarce and confused. The only known example, also interpreted by some scholars as a xylophone (Wegner, 1950 , p. 36), is a beautiful carving on an ivory pyxis (BM, no. 118179, ninth-eighth century bce ), where as part of a small Phoenician orchestra two persons are...

Carthage

Carthage   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,272 words

...Byzantine Carthage than to that of the early empire. For the Punic period, the German excavations at a number of points between the Byrsa hill and the sea revealed the original Punic settlement, going back at least to the first quarter of the eighth century bce ; the French laid bare several blocks of late Punic housing on the Byrsa itself, overlying an earlier industrial quarter, and preserved under later Roman fill; and British and American teams excavated in the area of the Punic ports, backed up by geophysical prospection and underwater exploration along...

Writing and Writing Systems

Writing and Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,745 words

...form of the letters. [See Indo-European Languages .] The base form does not, as in the underlying abjad, denote just the consonant; rather, it denotes the consonant plus the vowel a. A diacritic is available to cancel the vowel and indicate that the letter is used for the bare consonant (Richard Salomon, in Daniels and Bright, 1996 , sec. 30). The same method of denoting vowels is found in Ethiopic script, except that a vowelless consonant is denoted by the same symbol as denotes the consonant plus shwa. Continuing the pattern of abjad and alphabet...

Phoenician-Punic

Phoenician-Punic   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,025 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 'PQN, “may I find” ( KAI 50.3). The imperative, participle, and infinitive seem to correspond to Hebrew. However, for the passive participle, Late Punic has the orthography B῾RYK, indicating a qatil form (CEDAC, Carthage, Bulletin 8, 17ss., 1.3; cf. also personal names, Baric, meaning “blessed,” CIL 10686). Particles. Most adverbs and prepositions are Common West Semitic. B-presents the variants 'B-, with the prothetic aleph , and BN-expanded with N before suffix pronouns. With the preposition L-, the third-person suffix singular was only...

North Africa

North Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,610 words
Illustration(s):
6

...“discovered” North Africa discovered that it was already occupied. The foundation legends of Carthage, transmitted through classical sources (cf. Justin 18.5 for the fullest account), mention native inhabitants who contested the newcomers' right to settle their land. Beyond the bare fact of their existence, however, little else is known. There is a dearth of direct archaeological data to support generalizations about the society and economy of the native populations of North Africa in the millennium leading up to their first contact with the Iron Age...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,809 words
Illustration(s):
7

...within overall geometric designs. One of those panels depicts a rearing centaur; his uplifted arms hold a Greek inscription, “God is [our] Helper.” Near the entrance to the basilical hall a panel features two armed Amazons on horseback; in another panel in the eastern wing, three bare-breasted Amazons are shown dancing. The several Amazon scenes, like the Nile River floor, seem to represent festivities; the water installations and special drainage channels in the building suggest that a harvest water festival, known as the Maiuma, may have been celebrated in...

House

House   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
21,033 words
Illustration(s):
14

...located in parts of some of the houses. Houses varied greatly in size at each site, and every house area excavated has included both large and small houses, houses using more relatively expensive materials (baked brick in the south, stone in the north), and houses using the bare minimum—an indication that there was little segregation of the population according to wealth or status. Not all of these differences reflected wealth distinctions, however. Where textual data can be brought to bear, it appears that the houses with rooms on all sides may have...

philosophy

philosophy  

(Greek, love of knowledge or wisdom)The study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think: mind, matter, reason, proof, truth, etc. In philosophy, the ...
Southern Africa, Later Iron Age Societies of

Southern Africa, Later Iron Age Societies of   Reference library

Martin Hall

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,483 words

...colonization recorded accounts of variable thoroughness and reliability. There are dangers in reading these ethnographies back into the past, since many of their writers carried with them immense prejudices against Africa’s indigenous communities and since to clothe the rather bare bones of archaeological evidence with rich but intangible cultural trappings may be to smother the past with the present, denying the possibilities for change. The major attempt to integrate the ethnographic and archaeological evidence as a way of reconstructing the “cognitive system”...

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,817 words

...“If a man lies with a woman having her sickness and uncovers her nakedness, he has laid bare her flow and she has laid bare her flow of blood; both of them shall be cut off from their people.” It is impossible to know if these purity laws were actually enforced in ancient Israel. Reproduction. Children were considered to be Yahweh’s greatest gift to ancient Israel, and successful conception, pregnancy, childbirth, and infancy was a major focus of nearly every woman’s life. Motherhood is an honorable position in the Hebrew Bible; the prophet Deborah is called...

Roman Decorative Arts

Roman Decorative Arts   Reference library

Neil Asher Silberman, Joseph John Basile, David Whitehouse, Eleanor Winsor Leach, Demetrios Michaelides, and Fikret K. Yegül

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
7,975 words

...statue of the Roman general from Tivoli (first century bc ) show the influence that Greek models had on Roman Republican art: despite a well-established Roman tradition of togate , or armed portrait statues, this figure is heroically draped in the Greek manner, with his torso bare, and a slight S-curve to the figure reminiscent of the work of Polykleitos. The careworn face of the general, however, recalls the portraits of Republican Rome. Imperial sculpture in Rome saw a continuation of Greek influence, and usually reflected classical models. The Augustus from...

Dress, Bronze and Iron Age

Dress, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Abigail S. Limmer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,523 words

...Israelites in Egypt or Mesopotamia, though the early Iron Age–I Medinet Habu reliefs depict Sea Peoples, including the Philistines. According to these reliefs, Philistine warriors wore feathered headdresses attached to headbands, held on with a chin strap. Their upper bodies were bare, and they wore knee-length kilts that came to points on at least two sides. Some were shown with lines across the upper arm, denoting armlets. Interestingly, this does not match descriptions of the Philistine champion Goliath’s armor in the Bible ( 1 Sam 17:4–7 ). While the book...

Ramat Rahel

Ramat Rahel   Reference library

Oded Lipschits

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,252 words

...of the tell, where, according to Christian tradition, Mary, mother of Jesus, rested before setting out on the final leg of her journey to Bethlehem. Based on the site’s location, archaeological finds, and biblical information, it has been suggested that Ramat Rahel, which was a bare hill until the late eighth to early seventh centuries b.c.e. , had previously been known by the name Baal-perazim ( 2 Sam 5:20 , also called “Mount Perazim” in Isa 28:21 ), arguing that somewhere on the hill there may have been a cult place associated with the god Ba ʾ al...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...figural panels within overall geometric designs. One depicts a rearing centaur; its uplifted arms hold a Greek inscription, “God is [our] Helper.” Near the entrance to the basilical hall a panel features two armed Amazons on horseback; in another panel in the eastern wing three bare-breasted Amazons are dancing. The several Amazon scenes, like the Nile River floor, seem to represent festivities; the water installations and special drainage channels in the building suggest that a harvest water festival, known as the Maiuma, may have been celebrated in this...

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