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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... and virtual A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept according to Deleuze because it presupposes that everything that is real must also be possible (which rules out a great number of conceptual inventions, consigning them to the ontologically lesser category of the unreal, or impossible), and it is unable to explain why that which is possible has not already come into being. For Deleuze, both the actual...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...harvests and high food prices. This riotous action was striking for its ritualized forms and limited use of violence. Hardly ever attacking persons, the crowd often seized the grain or bread and sold it at what they considered a ‘fair’ price. The ruling classes had their own theatrical ways of displaying their authority. By and large the actual landowners only met the plebs face to face when cloaked in the majesty of the *law [8] or prepared to shower mercy and charity in order to cool plebeian discontent; otherwise they operated as employers and landlords...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Ireland’. However, such counter-revolutionary-inspired attempts to make the Church of England a virtual established church throughout the empire were checked by countervailing forces. In the first place, imperial administrators were well aware that too obvious an alliance with the Church of England could inflame the suspicions both of non-Christian native peoples and of European settlers outside the Anglican fold. The imperial government also had to reckon with the increasingly well- organized political voice of Protestant Dissent both at home and...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prehistory, suggesting virtual animality and absolute distance. If this racist evolutionism is typically associated with Darwinism, and indeed acquired more systematic theoretical form in the late nineteenth century, most of its familiar elements were nevertheless in place by the beginning of the century, though they jostled with other ways of perceiving human variety. Voyage and exploratory writing should not be understood as limited to the corpus of well-known voyages and descriptive works, but to include less renowned accounts, and even the cheap versions...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the form of extracts a virtual synopsis of late-eighteenth-century British and European enlightened thought. The foundations for enlightened radicalism in Ulster had, however, been laid nearly a century earlier, when Lockean ideas of social contract and popular sovereignty were related to the Irish situation by thinkers such as William Molyneux ( 1656–98 ) and Robert , Lord Molesworth ( 1656–1725 ), who also contrasted libertarian Whig principles based on the *Glorious Revolution with those of ecclesiastical and political tyranny. Another...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...without reducing the growth of new print publications, and the natural division between modern books and ancient texts has not disappeared. The digitization of new books, of course, is merely a new form of publication, and the digitization of current publications is fraught with legal issues of copyright. On the other hand, the digitization of ancient books and MSS not only provides access to their texts but is closely related to issues of preservation. The future of Chinese digital books and virtual libraries is as unpredictable as the technology that...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...between graceful 14 th -century Italian book illustration and the panel paintings and frescos of the early Renaissance; and between the homely, engaging, and sometimes comic miniatures of southern Netherlandish books of around 1500 and the paintings of the Flemish primitives, from the Van Eycks to the Bruegels. That is as one would expect. Often, in fact, they were the same actual craftsmen, working in different media. Most MSS are transcribed from other MSS, and absorb something of their exemplars and of their creator’s own time. The lines of textual...

marketplace

marketplace   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
82 words

...The space, actual or virtual, in which a market operates; the environment in which goods and services are supplied and purchased. The online, or virtual, marketplace uses a variety of digital channels and websites that enable the conduct of business between buyers and sellers of products, assets, and services without human interaction. There are also exchange-based online marketplaces in which a website service is shared by multiple e-commerce vendors, each having a different speciality, to conduct business online. See also market...

reality-testing

reality-testing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... ( Realitätsprüfung ) The process by which we discriminate between external and internal stimuli, that is to say between perceptions of actual objects in the world and hallucinations of non-real or virtual objects. It operates in the conscious part of the psychical apparatus. It is not, however, foolproof—e.g. someone in the grip of psychosis is incapable of...

reality-testing

reality-testing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... ( Realitätsprüfung ) The process by which we discriminate between external and internal stimuli, that is to say between perceptions of actual objects in the world and hallucinations of non-real or virtual objects. It operates in the conscious part of the psychical apparatus. It is not, however, foolproof—e.g. someone in the grip of psychosis is incapable of...

Atlas

Atlas   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...considered standard, including: a virtual (logical) address space larger than the actual (physical) address space; a one-level memory using core backed by drum; an architecture based on the assumption of a software operating system, with hardware features to assist the software. The design commenced in 1956 under Tom Kilburn at the University of Manchester, UK, and the project was supported from 1958 by Ferranti Ltd. The prototype was operating in 1961 and production models appeared in 1963 . See also virtual machine...

third place

third place   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
53 words

...place 1. Community meeting spaces such as cafés, pubs, and village halls which are, for their users, neither domestic nor work spaces. The concept was proposed by the American sociologist Ray Oldenburg ( b.1932 ). 2. In the context of videogames a virtual space which is neither an actual space nor a dream...

literalists

literalists   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
50 words

...Term used by Michael Fried as a virtual synonym for exponents of Minimal art . It is not intended as complimentary, implying that their work emphasizes actual space and conditions of viewing, so denying the kind of transcendental experience which, in his opinion, should be provided by...

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality   Reference library

Michael Heim

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,469 words

...potential as an art form, virtual reality will necessarily explore degrees of realism and of verisimilitude. What complicates the issue is the broad spread of disciplines from which virtual reality draws its sustenance: virtual reality combines art with technology, psychology with computer science, and electrical engineering with metaphysics. Another related problem is how to bridge the gap between the great expectations raised by the virtual reality concept and the actual achievements of research. The most widely available virtual reality systems in the early...

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,379 words

...entertainment trivia and commercial applications. To achieve its potential as an art form, Virtual Reality will necessarily explore degrees of realism and of verisimilitude. What complicates the issue is the broad spread of disciplines from which Virtual Reality draws its sustenance: Virtual Reality combines art with technology, psychology with computer science, and electrical engineering with metaphysics. Another related problem is how to bridge the gap between the great expectations raised by the Virtual Reality concept and the actual achievements of...

virtual machine

virtual machine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... machine 1. A collection of resources that emulates the behaviour of an actual machine. The virtual machine concept originated in Cambridge, Mass., in the late 1960s as an extension of the virtual memory system of the Manchester Atlas computer. A process is defined in its totality by the contents of the workspace to which it has access. Provided that the behaviour of the workspace is consistent with the expected behaviour, there is no means by which a process can determine whether a resource that it manipulates is realized by a physical resource of...

virtual reality

virtual reality n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... reality n . A computer-generated perceptual simulation of a three-dimensional image or environment with which the viewer can interact, often requiring a headset or goggles providing visual stimuli and gloves or other bodily attachments fitted with sensors. In a typical virtual reality display, turning the head produces an appropriate change in what is seen, and moving a hand activates a corresponding movement of an image of a hand in the display. The term, which became popular in the 1980s, is based on the concept of a virtual image in optics, which...

actual

actual   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and the virtual are fully real—the former has concrete existence, while the latter does not, but it is no less real for that fact. The importance of this distinction can readily be seen by giving thought to the state of being of an idea: it may only exist in our heads, or on paper, but its effects are fully real and may also be fully actual too. Initially treated as an esoteric distinction of interest only to specialists in the field of ontology , since the advent of computer games, and more especially the Internet, this distinction has become very important...

dispositif

dispositif   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...by Michel Foucault to describe the systemic connection of statements. It is for this reason often translated as ‘apparatus’, although this doesn't really work as it is a virtual process rather than an actual entity. Its nearest cognate is probably Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari 's concept of the assemblage (certainly their writing suggests that they appropriated the concept and made it their own). Further Reading: C. O'Farrell Michel Foucault ...

bind

bind   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...of a procedure the formal parameters are bound to the actual parameters that are supplied for that invocation, and this binding remains in force throughout the lifetime of that invocation. Similarly, at some time the variables in a program must be bound to particular storage addresses in the computer, and this binding typically remains in force for as long as the variable continues to exist. In a virtual memory system, there is further binding between the virtual addresses used in the program and the physical addresses of the hardware. For an abstract...

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