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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Chiang Kai-shek as war leader

Chiang Kai-shek as war leader   Reference library

Richard Rigby

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the dynamiting of the Yellow River dykes. However, once Chiang had established his wartime capital in Chungking, and as the war stabilized and changed its nature, corruption and demoralization set in at an alarming rate, and the problems and weaknesses of Chiang's leadership became increasingly obvious. With a virtual stalemate on the ground, both communists and nationalists were able to turn their attention to their abiding mutual enmity, and the New Fourth Army incident of January 1941 , in which KMT troops destroyed a communist HQ unit, marked the...

logistics

logistics   Reference library

Charles Messenger

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,149 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the importance of Benghazi and Tobruk during the fighting. However, the logistical problems in the Western Desert paled into virtual insignificance when it came to the war on the Eastern Front. According to the German plan for the invasion of the USSR ( see BARBAROSSA ), the German armies were expected to carry out an advance of up to 1,300 km. (800 mi.) on a 1,600 km. (1,000 mi.) front in the space of just four months while totally destroying the USSR's military power in the process. Apart from the distances involved, and the high rate of advance to be...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...led insurgencies. As a fundamentalist Sunni group, Al-Qaeda is violently opposed to other interpretations of Islam and has been at the heart of much Muslim sectarian violence during the 21st century. The operations of Al-Qaeda in Iraq played a prominent part in the virtual civil war that erupted between Sunni and Shi'a factions during 2006–08 . Al-Qaeda actively sought to provoke and intensify this conflict through targeted attacks on mosques and religious pilgrims, knowing that the fury generated by such outrages would fuel an escalation of sectarian...

State, The

State, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... of 1948 and other compromises, delaying the development of combined arms warfare and perpetuating interservice rivalry that handicapped military operations and distorted military advice during the Vietnam War. MacArthur proved in some ways a more difficult problem. Charismatic and personable, he was a virtual throwback to the nineteenth century; as army commander in chief of the Pacific theater, he proved an uneasy partner to the admiral commanding the Pacific Fleet, Chester Nimitz . With the defeat of Japan, MacArthur became the virtual American...

Combat Effectiveness

Combat Effectiveness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...(land, air, sea) and nationality (allies); logistical sustainability for a campaign extended in time and/or distance; provisions for effective higher command in both the personal and the technical sense; the identification of fundamental enemy weaknesses; and the maximum combination of overwhelming firepower and surprising maneuver. Tactical effectiveness concentrates on the actual performance of combatant forces (infantry, armor, artillery, warships, combat aviation units) in engagements with the enemy. Operational and tactical effectiveness have...

Tactics

Tactics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... war plans and actual force deployment. War plans were drawn to gain sea control, support a major NATO war in Europe, and attack the Soviet homeland directly, with or without nuclear weapons . The plans envisioned battles fought against Soviet submarines, long‐range aircraft, and surface warships over the vastness of the ocean. Simultaneously, and paradoxically, the actual profitable deployment of American naval forces took place close inshore in a wide variety of circumstances and locales, involving air strikes, amphibious landings, and sustainment of...

World War II (1939–45)

World War II (1939–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...banning segregation and discrimination in the military flowed from forces set in motion by the war, which also eroded religious and ethnic barriers. The war reworked systems of gender and sexuality in more complex ways. Prizing both male virtue and women's contributions, wartime culture set the stage for a virtual invention of the “traditional family,” to the detriment of many women and homosexuals. However varied their fortunes, social groups nonetheless had something in common: their fate was now shaped by America's global power and the national...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...and the scheme failed to realize enough cash, forcing him to end his siege of Tournai prematurely. He bankrupted the Italian banking firms Bardi and Peruzzi and created enormous discontent in England through increases in taxation. In November 1340 , a virtual prisoner of his creditors, Edward was forced to steal away to England. On his arrival there, he blamed his councillors; in 1341 he was forced to summon Parliament and reduce his more exorbitant demands for taxation. A truce for three years was agreed in 1343 , but it did not run its full course, and...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...and the Near East. Medieval warfare in general, and in the Crusade movement in particular, was long treated by historiographers as an essentially masculine activity in which the roles of women had little relevance. But from the late 1970s and 1980s, studies on women’s participation in the Crusade movement, women’s status in the crusader states, and Christian and Muslim perception of women all led to the rapid burgeoning of scholarly writing on these and related subjects. This significant historiographical development has done much to illuminate the actual...

Computer-Mediated Communication Technology and Cross-National Learning

Computer-Mediated Communication Technology and Cross-National Learning   Reference library

Derrick L. Cogburn

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Cross-National Learning Introduction Over the last decade, information and communication technologies have continued to emerge at an increasingly rapid pace. These technologies are providing an underlying infrastructure to support opportunities for innovative synchronous, asynchronous, and blended cross-national research and learning experiences in international communication. Through the use of these technologies, it is possible for students around the world to work in global virtual teams in collaboration with real organizations engaged in actual...

Power and Space in Electronic Communications

Power and Space in Electronic Communications   Reference library

Philip E. Steinberg and Darren Purcell

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,018 words

...competition and civil society, these same networks provide a means for alternative political formations to assert their presence. Philip E. Steinberg and Darren Purcell Florida State University and University of Oklahoma References Abbate, J. (1999) Inventing the Internet . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Abdulla, R.A. (2007) The Internet in the Arab World: Egypt and Beyond . New York: Peter Lang. Adams, P. (1998) Network Topologies and Virtual Place. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88, 88–106. Adams, P. , and Ghose, R. ...

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet   Reference library

Gabriel Weimann

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,032 words

...funds and launder money, recruit and train members, communicate and conspire, plan and launch attacks. Al Qaeda, for example, now operates hundreds of websites and many more appear every year. Besides websites, modern terrorists rely on e-mail, chatrooms, e-groups, forums, virtual message boards, and resources like YouTube, Facebook, and Google Earth. Fighting online terrorism raises the issue of countermeasures and their cost. Since the advent of the internet, counterterrorism and security services all over the world have seen it as both a danger and a...

Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies

Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies   Reference library

Steven F. Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,793 words

...educational film and educational radio, then educational television and computer-assisted instruction, and now cyberspace and virtual learning environments would change dramatically the way we educate and the way people learn” ( Spaulding 2002 :119). Distance education became an issue in the 1990s with the rise of interactive television and other technologies, for example voice over internet protocol programs such as HorizonLive, Wimba, and WindowsLive, and a host of other products that allow multiple users to listen to and see each other and common text,...

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency   Reference library

David J. Betz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,693 words

...of warfare including conventional capabilities, irregular tactics and formations, terrorist acts including indiscriminate violence and coercion, and criminal disorder” ( 2007 :14). The distinguishing characteristic of hybrid wars is that the adversary employs all forms of conflict, conventional and unconventional, simultaneously in a coordinated manner at the tactical and operational level. Also, such conflicts take place within complex terrain, “amongst the people,” and exploit the virtual dimension to great effect. We can see in this parallels with the...

Model UN and Model EU Programs

Model UN and Model EU Programs   Reference library

Gretchen J. Van Dyke

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,280 words

...occur entirely online. In one such case, students from North Dakota State University and the University of Cincinnati were twice linked via videoconference technology to conduct, first, a virtual session of the International Court of Justice and, second, an all-day “Virtual Security Council.” Both activities utilized an array of online tools and experienced varying degrees of success. ( Kuzma: 2000 ) Delegate Preparation Preparations for large-scale MUN programs and in-class versions are similar, except that for the former, preparatory work may or may...

Technology and International Relations

Technology and International Relations   Reference library

Sai Felicia Krishna-Hensel

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,305 words

...occasional papers on new research methodologies and timely policy issues. RAND is an online resource for unclassified research and documents relating to terrorism studies. RAND papers on international policy include security and military policy as well as social and economic policy. Virtual Library of International Affairs Resources. At www2.etown.edu/vl/journals.html , accessed July 28, 2009. Provides a fairly extensive directory and search engines for international relations and foreign policy journals and magazines with significant online content. University...

Colonial Military Forces

Colonial Military Forces   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...militiamen though not subjected to military discipline. In 1885 Queensland and Tasmania passed virtual copies of Canada's Militia Act , nominally enrolling every fit man in their colonies into a defence force, threatening to conduct a militia ballot if too few came forward voluntarily to drill, and imposing on those who did partial military discipline and fixed training and terms of service, all in return for pay. The following year South Australia consolidated its volunteer and militia acts into a copy of the Canadian model, but still avoided imposing...

World System in the Information Age

World System in the Information Age   Reference library

Joachim K. Rennstich

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,068 words

...and as a constituent of social relations ( Kitchin 1998 ). It cannot be entirely eliminated because of the interaction of the virtual space with the world beyond ICT networks and cyberspace, which only in combination constitute the external networks on which the global world system is based. Increases in capacity, speed, and digitalization have provided possibilities to integrate graphics, text, video, and sound (including voice) in applications, while the integration of computing and communication technologies has created possibilities of accessing and...

Film and Television, War in Australian

Film and Television, War in Australian   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to the Women's Land Army, and the Women's Weekly magazine's handling of war, ‘The Weekly's War’, or other social issues. The nostalgia which these and other pieces demonstrate found a major expression in the celebrations and subsequent telefeatures surrounding the anniversaries of the Burma-Thailand railroad. This reached something of a peak with the virtual apotheosis in film (and elsewhere in print) of Edward ‘Weary’ Dunlop leading up to and following his death. There is little sign that this nostalgic recreation of events and icons of Anzac is in sharp...

Gender, Just War, and the Ethics of War and Peace

Gender, Just War, and the Ethics of War and Peace   Reference library

Lauren Wilcox

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,976 words

...Relations. In M. Zalewski and J. Parpart (eds.) The Man Question in International Relations . Boulder: Westview, pp. 2853. Hooper, C. (2001) Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics . New York: Columbia University Press. Hutchings, K. (2007) Feminist Ethics and Political Violence. International Politics 44, 90106. Ignatieff, M. (2000) Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond . New York: Metropolitan Books. Johnson, J.T. (1981) Just War Tradition and the Restraint of War: A Moral and Historical Inquiry . Princeton:...

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