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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Gay Rights

Gay Rights   Reference library

Jonathan Goldberg-Hiller

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,995 words

...Rollins, Joe Neil. AIDS and the Sexuality of Law: Ironic Jurisprudence . (Houndmills, Basingstoke, UK, 2004). Stoddard, Thomas. “ Bleeding Heart: Reflections on Using the Law to Make Social Change. ” New York University Law Review 72 (1997): 967. Sullivan, Andrew. Virtually Normal: An Argument about Homosexuality . (New York, 1996). Teles, Steven Michael. The Rise of the Conservative Legal Movement: The Battle for Control of the Law . (Princeton, N.J., 2008). Vaid, Urvashi. Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming of Gay and Lesbian Liberation . (New York,...

Equality and Inequality

Equality and Inequality   Reference library

J. Roland Pennock

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,270 words

...Africa, the Soviet Union, the United States, and India. Unequal women's rights were of particular political concern in Africa and the Muslim world. Unequal income among countries is a major source of global tensions. Inequality is especially important for understanding the ferment in the Middle East, where the oil wealth of some coupled with state-sanctioned racial and religious privileges saturate the popular outlook, providing an ever-present foundation for political and violent struggle. Indeed, inequality, actual or perceived, is, throughout the world, the...

Arms Control

Arms Control   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,705 words

...can still escape international detection. Japan has established a “virtual” nuclear arsenal by stockpiling plutonium and developing components for future delivery vehicles, and other states may follow suit. The five original nuclear powers have suspended production of fissionable material for weapons but a treaty on this has been blocked by India and Pakistan. The United States and Russia have sophisticated programs in place to refine their nuclear arsenals without nuclear testing and still possess over 10,000 nuclear weapons apiece. Conventional arms...

Equality and Inequality

Equality and Inequality   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,220 words

...the Soviet Union, the United States, and India. Unequal women's rights were of particular political concern in Africa and the Muslim world. Unequal income among countries is a major source of global tensions. Inequality is especially important for understanding the ferment in the Middle East where the oil wealth of some, coupled with state-sanctioned racial and religious privileges, saturate the popular outlook, providing the ever-present foundation for political and violent struggle. Indeed, inequality, actual or perceived, is, throughout the world, the...

Computer-Mediated Communication Technology and Cross-National Learning

Computer-Mediated Communication Technology and Cross-National Learning   Reference library

Derrick L. Cogburn

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Cross-National Learning Introduction Over the last decade, information and communication technologies have continued to emerge at an increasingly rapid pace. These technologies are providing an underlying infrastructure to support opportunities for innovative synchronous, asynchronous, and blended cross-national research and learning experiences in international communication. Through the use of these technologies, it is possible for students around the world to work in global virtual teams in collaboration with real organizations engaged in actual...

Power and Space in Electronic Communications

Power and Space in Electronic Communications   Reference library

Philip E. Steinberg and Darren Purcell

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,018 words

...competition and civil society, these same networks provide a means for alternative political formations to assert their presence. Philip E. Steinberg and Darren Purcell Florida State University and University of Oklahoma References Abbate, J. (1999) Inventing the Internet . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Abdulla, R.A. (2007) The Internet in the Arab World: Egypt and Beyond . New York: Peter Lang. Adams, P. (1998) Network Topologies and Virtual Place. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88, 88–106. Adams, P. , and Ghose, R. ...

China

China   Reference library

Dru C. Gladney

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,543 words

...and Kubrawīyah. The hierarchical organization of these Ṣūfī networks helped to mobilize large numbers of Hui during economic and political crises in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, assisting widespread Muslim-led rebellions and resistance movements against late Ming and Qing imperial rule in Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu, and Xinjiang. The 1912 Nationalist revolution allowed further autonomy in regions of Muslim concentration in the northwest, and wide areas came under virtual control by Muslim warlords, leading to frequent intra-Muslim and Muslim-Han...

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet   Reference library

Gabriel Weimann

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,032 words

...funds and launder money, recruit and train members, communicate and conspire, plan and launch attacks. Al Qaeda, for example, now operates hundreds of websites and many more appear every year. Besides websites, modern terrorists rely on e-mail, chatrooms, e-groups, forums, virtual message boards, and resources like YouTube, Facebook, and Google Earth. Fighting online terrorism raises the issue of countermeasures and their cost. Since the advent of the internet, counterterrorism and security services all over the world have seen it as both a danger and a...

Diplomacy in Foreign Policy

Diplomacy in Foreign Policy   Reference library

Kenneth Weisbrode

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,121 words

...and representational roles are akin to those of a legislature—where they are usually understood as being actual and virtual—insofar as they put diplomats in an often-paradoxical position of having to subsume, or even to subvert, their individual interests and attitudes to the general will as expressed through their sovereigns (that is to say, governments); yet at the same time, they are meant to use all the particular, individual initiative that they can muster to advance that will. Diplomacy as representation, therefore, divides itself into means and ends....

COINTELPRO

COINTELPRO   Reference library

Pedro Cában

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,769 words

...subjected to a virtual campaign of terrorism that included bombings of Independence Party and Socialist Party headquarters. Mari Bras’s son was murdered in 1976 . Two young independentistas were murdered in Cerro Maravilla in 1978 , provoking a legislative inquiry and accusations that the FBI attempted to obstruct the investigations. According to the reporter and writer Alfred López, during a fifteen-year period ( 1971 to 1986 ) over 170 attacks of various types committed against independence movement organizations were documented. The FBI and local police...

Reagan, Ronald

Reagan, Ronald   Reference library

Stephen R. Routh and Larry Berman

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,339 words

...in late 1983, had devolved into virtual anarchy after years of destructive civil war, and the American troops stationed in Beirut had simply become sitting ducks for Arab militias, ultimately resulting in a suicide bombing killing over two hundred marines and injuring a hundred more (the remaining US troops were removed several months later). Mere days after the Lebanon fiasco, Reagan sent troops to Grenada in order to quell a violent leftist coup that had assassinated the Grenadan prime minister and that was being aided and abetted by the Cuban...

Obscenity and Pornography

Obscenity and Pornography   Reference library

Donald A. Downs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,594 words

...issues as thousands of websites have made pornography available to minors. The Court has struck down a federal law prohibiting the knowing transmission to minors of indecent or patently offensive messages ( Reno v. ACLU , 1994 ) and a federal law that prohibited making images of actual adults or computer-created images (“virtual pornography”) that appear to be images of minors engaged in sexually explicit conduct ( Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition , 2002 ). These laws were not sufficiently limited to protecting minors. But the Court upheld the federal...

Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies

Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies   Reference library

Steven F. Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,793 words

...educational film and educational radio, then educational television and computer-assisted instruction, and now cyberspace and virtual learning environments would change dramatically the way we educate and the way people learn” ( Spaulding 2002 :119). Distance education became an issue in the 1990s with the rise of interactive television and other technologies, for example voice over internet protocol programs such as HorizonLive, Wimba, and WindowsLive, and a host of other products that allow multiple users to listen to and see each other and common text,...

New Media

New Media   Reference library

Henry Jenkins and Sangita Shresthova

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,643 words

...some virtual) rallying to support the legalization of same sex marriage. Participants were encouraged to tap their social networks and produce media advocating for the cause, but they also engaged in more conventional kinds of phone-banking and door-to-door campaigning in collaboration with Massachusetts Equality. They recorded an increase in Mass Equality’s calls to voters by over 1200 percent in one day, making over 3,500 calls. Such experiences foster new civic skills and further build on the sense of community, and with it a possible empowerment, and...

New Media

New Media   Reference library

Henry Jenkins and Sangita Shresthova

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,588 words

...some virtual) rallying to support the legalization of same sex marriage. Participants were encouraged to tap their social networks and produce media advocating for the cause, but they also engaged in more conventional kinds of phone-banking and door-to-door campaigning in collaboration with Massachusetts Equality. They recorded an increase in Mass Equality's calls to voters by over 1200 percent in one day, making over 3,500 calls. Such experiences foster new civic skills and further build on the sense of community, and with it a possible empowerment, and...

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency   Reference library

David J. Betz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,693 words

...of warfare including conventional capabilities, irregular tactics and formations, terrorist acts including indiscriminate violence and coercion, and criminal disorder” ( 2007 :14). The distinguishing characteristic of hybrid wars is that the adversary employs all forms of conflict, conventional and unconventional, simultaneously in a coordinated manner at the tactical and operational level. Also, such conflicts take place within complex terrain, “amongst the people,” and exploit the virtual dimension to great effect. We can see in this parallels with the...

Model UN and Model EU Programs

Model UN and Model EU Programs   Reference library

Gretchen J. Van Dyke

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,280 words

...occur entirely online. In one such case, students from North Dakota State University and the University of Cincinnati were twice linked via videoconference technology to conduct, first, a virtual session of the International Court of Justice and, second, an all-day “Virtual Security Council.” Both activities utilized an array of online tools and experienced varying degrees of success. ( Kuzma: 2000 ) Delegate Preparation Preparations for large-scale MUN programs and in-class versions are similar, except that for the former, preparatory work may or may...

Technology and International Relations

Technology and International Relations   Reference library

Sai Felicia Krishna-Hensel

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,305 words

...occasional papers on new research methodologies and timely policy issues. RAND is an online resource for unclassified research and documents relating to terrorism studies. RAND papers on international policy include security and military policy as well as social and economic policy. Virtual Library of International Affairs Resources. At www2.etown.edu/vl/journals.html , accessed July 28, 2009. Provides a fairly extensive directory and search engines for international relations and foreign policy journals and magazines with significant online content. University...

World System in the Information Age

World System in the Information Age   Reference library

Joachim K. Rennstich

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,068 words

...and as a constituent of social relations ( Kitchin 1998 ). It cannot be entirely eliminated because of the interaction of the virtual space with the world beyond ICT networks and cyberspace, which only in combination constitute the external networks on which the global world system is based. Increases in capacity, speed, and digitalization have provided possibilities to integrate graphics, text, video, and sound (including voice) in applications, while the integration of computing and communication technologies has created possibilities of accessing and...

Gender, Just War, and the Ethics of War and Peace

Gender, Just War, and the Ethics of War and Peace   Reference library

Lauren Wilcox

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,976 words

...Relations. In M. Zalewski and J. Parpart (eds.) The Man Question in International Relations . Boulder: Westview, pp. 2853. Hooper, C. (2001) Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics . New York: Columbia University Press. Hutchings, K. (2007) Feminist Ethics and Political Violence. International Politics 44, 90106. Ignatieff, M. (2000) Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond . New York: Metropolitan Books. Johnson, J.T. (1981) Just War Tradition and the Restraint of War: A Moral and Historical Inquiry . Princeton:...

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