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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Conditional and Convective Instability

Conditional and Convective Instability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,604 words
Illustration(s):
2

...temperature change with displacement will then be at the dry adiabatic lapse rate. (Strictly, it is lapse rates of virtual temperature that apply, since the water vapor mixing ratio is among the factors determining the air density. [ See Temperature .] The virtual temperature of moist air is the temperature that air without water vapor would have if both had the same density and pressure. The difference between temperature and virtual temperature is usually quite small.) If the surrounding air has a lapse rate less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate, the...

Water Vapor

Water Vapor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,391 words
Illustration(s):
4

...has a virtual temperature slightly greater than its actual temperature. [ See Temperature .] Water exists in the atmosphere in all three of its common phases—vapor, liquid, and solid (there are actually several different phases of ice, but those details are beyond this discussion). It is constantly changing between them. In the atmosphere, there are four phase changes involving water vapor: evaporation or vaporization is the change from liquid to vapor; condensation is the change from vapor to liquid; sublimation is the change from solid to vapor; and...

Aviation and Weather Impacts

Aviation and Weather Impacts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Toohey, D. , et al. “ Aviation and Chemistry and Transport Processes in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere .” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91, no. 4 (2010): 485–490. Wiederhold, Brenda K., and Mark D. Wiederhold. “Three-Year Follow-up for Virtual Reality Exposure for Fear of Flying.” CyberPsychology and Behavior 6 (4) (August 2003): 441–445. doi:10.1089/109493103322278844. ( http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089%2F109493103322278844 ). Wilson, James W. , et al. “ Microburst Wind Structure and Evaluation of Doppler Radar...

Online and Social Media Campaigns For Climate Change Engagement

Online and Social Media Campaigns For Climate Change Engagement   Reference library

Alexandra Segerberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of social presence and media richness and degree of user self-presentation and self-disclosure: text-based collaborative bookmarking applications and wiki projects (e.g., Wikipedia); blogs or microblogs (e.g., Twitter, Sina Weibo); content-sharing communities that involve sharing text, video, photos, and other forms of media (e.g., YouTube; Instagram); social network sites (e.g., Facebook; WeChat); virtual environments seeking to replicate face-to-face interactions, such as virtual game worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft) and virtual social worlds (e.g.,...

Instrumentation

Instrumentation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,160 words
Illustration(s):
11

...sound speed in three different directions. Sound speed also depends on temperature and to a lesser extent on moisture; the temperature/moisture effect is canceled by measuring the two-way travel time of the sound wave. Alternately, the sonic anemometer can also provide an estimate of the virtual temperature of the air. Sonic anemometers traditionally have been research instruments but now are beginning to be used operationally because of their increased reliability and reduced costs. Recent advances in active remote sensing techniques have led to the...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

.... Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: http://www.oecd.org . Worldwide Web Virtual Library: http://www.ulb.ac.be/ceese/meta/sustvl . Bibliography Adams, W. M. Sustainable Development? In Geographies of Global Change , edited by R. J. Johnston , P. J. Taylor , and M. J. Watts . Oxford: Blackwell, 1996. Brundtland, H. Our Common Future: World Commission on Environment and Development . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). World Conservation...

Communication, Negotiation, and Influence at International Climate Change Meetings and Summits

Communication, Negotiation, and Influence at International Climate Change Meetings and Summits   Reference library

Hartmut Wessler, Julia Lück, and Antal Wozniak

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,585 words
Illustration(s):
3

...indicators such as extreme weather events and actual changes in temperature levels drove up media attention to climate change only in Germany ( Schäfer et al., 2014 ). They do not constitute strong across-the-board predictors of media attention. Similarly, Liu, Lindquist, and Vedlitz ( 2011 ) show that international focusing events (such as the creation of the IPCC, the IPCC assessments reports and the COPs) were the most important drivers of attention to the issue in both the New York Times and the U.S. Congress during the period from 1969 to...

The Arts and Humanities in Climate Change Engagement

The Arts and Humanities in Climate Change Engagement   Reference library

Julia B. Corbett and Brett Clark

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...help make deep connections and spur people to become active (see also O’Neill & Hulme, 2009 ; Shaw et al., 2009 ). In similar fashion, the Virtual Human Interaction Lab produced a virtual reality game and documentary , whereby participants experience ocean acidification through fish avatars. In studies associated with this project, researchers found that participants experience heightened learning associated with seeing through the eyes of the avatars. This game helps individuals visualize what ocean acidification entails and make connections between...

Fear Appeals in Climate Change Communication

Fear Appeals in Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Joseph P. Reser and Graham L. Bradley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
19,260 words
Illustration(s):
2

...as an ongoing environmental stressor. And its presence is increasingly felt in our information environment and cultural circuits (e.g., Carvalho & Burgess, 2005 ; Evans & Cohen, 1987 ; Reser & Swim, 2011 ). The impact of these ubiquitous informal risk communications and effective fear appeals is compounded by daily indirect and virtual exposure to and experience of social representations and media coverage of environmental threats, natech environmental accidents and disasters, and extreme weather events and “natural” disasters (e.g., Balzarotti &...

Methods for Assessing Online Climate Change Communication, Social Media Discussion, and Behavior

Methods for Assessing Online Climate Change Communication, Social Media Discussion, and Behavior   Reference library

Leona Yi-Fan Su, Heather Akin, and Dominique Brossard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...formation and change ( Barabas & Jerit, 2010 ). Internet and mobile surveys can incorporate new methods of measuring public attitudes alongside experiments, creating a “virtual laboratory” for researchers to establish causal mechanisms within a wide range of hypotheses. With the prevalence of the Internet as an information source ( National Science Board, 2016 ), such experiments can replicate how information or media content is conveyed in the real world, thus giving external validity to an experiment’s findings ( Reips, 2002 ). Online and mobile...

Global Change

Global Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...biotic, and other resources of the Americas on the one hand, Europe, Africa, and Asia on the other. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands were to enter this extended community some two to three hundred years later. We have sound botanical, linguistic, and archaeological evidence indicating sporadic human contacts across both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans long before 1492 , but the impacts of such interchanges were minor or local. The only actual colonizations we can be sure of, those of the Norse in Greenland, Newfoundland, and perhaps other...

Social Capital and Climate Change Adaptation

Social Capital and Climate Change Adaptation   Reference library

Daniel P. Aldrich, Courtney Page, and Christopher J. Paul

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...a protective effect on health at the individual and community levels ( Aldrich & Sawada, 2015 ; Kim, Subramanian, & Kawachi, 2006 ). We next explore how social capital functions during and after extreme emergencies and catastrophes. Social Capital in Climate Change Disasters and Crises Social capital plays a critical role during crises and environmental shocks such as those posed by climate change ( Chamlee-Wright, 2010 ; Dynes, 2006 ; Prasad, Su, Altay, & Tata, 2014 ). Importantly, much of the actual impact of anthropogenic global warming to date...

Determinants and Measurement of Climate Change Risk Perception, Worry, and Concern

Determinants and Measurement of Climate Change Risk Perception, Worry, and Concern   Reference library

Sander van der Linden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
18,990 words
Illustration(s):
4

...than analyzing and constructing actual social networks. Yet, with the increasing spread and transmission of risk information on social media, new theories and methods are being developed, including “social contagion theories of risk” ( Scherer & Cho, 2003 ), social tipping points ( Kinzig et al., 2013 ; van der Linden, 2017 ), “sentiment” analyses on Twitter ( Cody et al., 2015 ), and the role of network opinion leaders ( Nisbet & Kotcher, 2009 ). In short, much exciting research remains to be done on the topic of normative influence and its impact on...

Portrayal and Impacts of Climate Change in Advertising and Consumer Campaigns

Portrayal and Impacts of Climate Change in Advertising and Consumer Campaigns   Reference library

Lucy Atkinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and serve to distance audiences from the everyday reality of climate change and consumption ( Hansen & Machin, 2008 ; O’Neill & Smith, 2014 ). Hartmann and Apaolaza-Ibáñez ( 2009 ) have argued that environmental imagery works to create a virtual nature experience that engenders positive affect toward products advertised using pleasant natural imagery. Specifically, the authors demonstrated that for Spanish consumers, ads that depicted lush green landscapes yielded more positive affect, were associated with more positive attitudes toward the ad, and...

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands   Reference library

Art Dewulf, Daan Boezeman, and Martinus Vink

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,430 words
Illustration(s):
2

...interactive, and global online networks of communication have enabled large parts of the population to become active communicators in a new virtual public space. Starting with the blogosphere and developing into an ecosystem of different platforms, social media play important roles in climate change communication—roles different from those of mass media ( Schäfer, 2012 ). The combination of a broad historical overview and more focused discussion on these three cross-cutting themes aims to provide both historical context and analytical depth to our...

Communicating about Solar Energy and Climate Change

Communicating about Solar Energy and Climate Change   Reference library

Tarla Rai Peterson and Cristi C. Horton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
17,689 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the Arizona’s potential and actual solar production could be reduced by replacing policy barriers with incentives, suggesting revamping energy codes, regulations, and laws that currently discourage renewable energy deployment. Pasqualetti et al. ( 2011 , p. 887) argue that, to take advantage of its 325 sunny days/year, Arizona needs to “pass a feed-in-tariff [and provide] a friendlier and more enthusiastic business climate.” Although supporters of solar and other renewable energy resources in Arizona have been organizing and agitating for a feed-in...

“Global Warming” versus “Climate Change” and the Influence of Labeling on Public Perceptions

“Global Warming” versus “Climate Change” and the Influence of Labeling on Public Perceptions   Reference library

Jonathon P. Schuldt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,279 words
Illustration(s):
2

...examples, and other persuasive devices in an attempt to evoke distinct cognitive schemas, audience members may become increasingly aware of the framing attempt—perhaps increasing the likelihood that they will consciously reject (e.g., counter-argue; Petty & Cacioppo, 1979 ) or attempt to overcorrect for its perceived and unwanted influence on judgment (e.g., Schwarz & Clore, 1983 ; Wegener & Petty, 1995 ; Wilson & Brekke, 1994 ). In contrast, the use of one label over another, especially when the labels in question are treated as virtual synonyms in...

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