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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

actual and virtual

actual and virtual   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... and virtual A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad concept according to Deleuze because it presupposes that everything that is real must also be possible (which rules out a great number of conceptual inventions, consigning them to the ontologically lesser category of the unreal, or impossible), and it is unable to explain why that which is possible has not already come into being. For Deleuze, both the actual...

Chiang Kai-shek as war leader

Chiang Kai-shek as war leader   Reference library

Richard Rigby

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the dynamiting of the Yellow River dykes. However, once Chiang had established his wartime capital in Chungking, and as the war stabilized and changed its nature, corruption and demoralization set in at an alarming rate, and the problems and weaknesses of Chiang's leadership became increasingly obvious. With a virtual stalemate on the ground, both communists and nationalists were able to turn their attention to their abiding mutual enmity, and the New Fourth Army incident of January 1941 , in which KMT troops destroyed a communist HQ unit, marked the...

logistics

logistics   Reference library

Charles Messenger

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,149 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the importance of Benghazi and Tobruk during the fighting. However, the logistical problems in the Western Desert paled into virtual insignificance when it came to the war on the Eastern Front. According to the German plan for the invasion of the USSR ( see BARBAROSSA ), the German armies were expected to carry out an advance of up to 1,300 km. (800 mi.) on a 1,600 km. (1,000 mi.) front in the space of just four months while totally destroying the USSR's military power in the process. Apart from the distances involved, and the high rate of advance to be...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...led insurgencies. As a fundamentalist Sunni group, Al-Qaeda is violently opposed to other interpretations of Islam and has been at the heart of much Muslim sectarian violence during the 21st century. The operations of Al-Qaeda in Iraq played a prominent part in the virtual civil war that erupted between Sunni and Shi'a factions during 2006–08 . Al-Qaeda actively sought to provoke and intensify this conflict through targeted attacks on mosques and religious pilgrims, knowing that the fury generated by such outrages would fuel an escalation of sectarian...

Simulations of Evolution

Simulations of Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and subsequent selection, and those in which the nature of the evolution process itself, as well as its influence on the products of evolution, is the object of inquiry. In general, simulation refers to a technique in which a process and the relevant variables are abstracted mathematically, so that they can be studied, usually, but not necessarily, on a computer. Strictly speaking, simulations of evolution are not really simulations (as opposed to, say, the simulation of a tornado) because the actual rules of evolution are implemented and act on...

Conditional and Convective Instability

Conditional and Convective Instability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,604 words
Illustration(s):
2

...temperature change with displacement will then be at the dry adiabatic lapse rate. (Strictly, it is lapse rates of virtual temperature that apply, since the water vapor mixing ratio is among the factors determining the air density. [ See Temperature .] The virtual temperature of moist air is the temperature that air without water vapor would have if both had the same density and pressure. The difference between temperature and virtual temperature is usually quite small.) If the surrounding air has a lapse rate less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate, the...

Project Hope

Project Hope   Reference library

Jean W. YAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...educational facilities and teaching quality, establishing Stars of Hope Scholarships in high schools and universities. To qualify for the scholarship, a student has to (1) have excellent academic achievement, (2) actively participate in community activities, and (3) be in need of financial aid to finish school (different places have different standards, CYDF is also carrying out distance-education initiatives (virtual education, that is, providing education through internet or a closed-circuit TV system), training rural teachers, and reinforcing the...

Water Vapor

Water Vapor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,391 words
Illustration(s):
4

...has a virtual temperature slightly greater than its actual temperature. [ See Temperature .] Water exists in the atmosphere in all three of its common phases—vapor, liquid, and solid (there are actually several different phases of ice, but those details are beyond this discussion). It is constantly changing between them. In the atmosphere, there are four phase changes involving water vapor: evaporation or vaporization is the change from liquid to vapor; condensation is the change from vapor to liquid; sublimation is the change from solid to vapor; and...

State, The

State, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... of 1948 and other compromises, delaying the development of combined arms warfare and perpetuating interservice rivalry that handicapped military operations and distorted military advice during the Vietnam War. MacArthur proved in some ways a more difficult problem. Charismatic and personable, he was a virtual throwback to the nineteenth century; as army commander in chief of the Pacific theater, he proved an uneasy partner to the admiral commanding the Pacific Fleet, Chester Nimitz . With the defeat of Japan, MacArthur became the virtual American...

Combat Effectiveness

Combat Effectiveness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...(land, air, sea) and nationality (allies); logistical sustainability for a campaign extended in time and/or distance; provisions for effective higher command in both the personal and the technical sense; the identification of fundamental enemy weaknesses; and the maximum combination of overwhelming firepower and surprising maneuver. Tactical effectiveness concentrates on the actual performance of combatant forces (infantry, armor, artillery, warships, combat aviation units) in engagements with the enemy. Operational and tactical effectiveness have...

Aviation and Weather Impacts

Aviation and Weather Impacts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Toohey, D. , et al. “ Aviation and Chemistry and Transport Processes in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere .” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91, no. 4 (2010): 485–490. Wiederhold, Brenda K., and Mark D. Wiederhold. “Three-Year Follow-up for Virtual Reality Exposure for Fear of Flying.” CyberPsychology and Behavior 6 (4) (August 2003): 441–445. doi:10.1089/109493103322278844. ( http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089%2F109493103322278844 ). Wilson, James W. , et al. “ Microburst Wind Structure and Evaluation of Doppler Radar...

Online and Social Media Campaigns For Climate Change Engagement

Online and Social Media Campaigns For Climate Change Engagement   Reference library

Alexandra Segerberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of social presence and media richness and degree of user self-presentation and self-disclosure: text-based collaborative bookmarking applications and wiki projects (e.g., Wikipedia); blogs or microblogs (e.g., Twitter, Sina Weibo); content-sharing communities that involve sharing text, video, photos, and other forms of media (e.g., YouTube; Instagram); social network sites (e.g., Facebook; WeChat); virtual environments seeking to replicate face-to-face interactions, such as virtual game worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft) and virtual social worlds (e.g.,...

Tactics

Tactics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... war plans and actual force deployment. War plans were drawn to gain sea control, support a major NATO war in Europe, and attack the Soviet homeland directly, with or without nuclear weapons . The plans envisioned battles fought against Soviet submarines, long‐range aircraft, and surface warships over the vastness of the ocean. Simultaneously, and paradoxically, the actual profitable deployment of American naval forces took place close inshore in a wide variety of circumstances and locales, involving air strikes, amphibious landings, and sustainment of...

Instrumentation

Instrumentation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,160 words
Illustration(s):
11

...sound speed in three different directions. Sound speed also depends on temperature and to a lesser extent on moisture; the temperature/moisture effect is canceled by measuring the two-way travel time of the sound wave. Alternately, the sonic anemometer can also provide an estimate of the virtual temperature of the air. Sonic anemometers traditionally have been research instruments but now are beginning to be used operationally because of their increased reliability and reduced costs. Recent advances in active remote sensing techniques have led to the...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

.... Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: http://www.oecd.org . Worldwide Web Virtual Library: http://www.ulb.ac.be/ceese/meta/sustvl . Bibliography Adams, W. M. Sustainable Development? In Geographies of Global Change , edited by R. J. Johnston , P. J. Taylor , and M. J. Watts . Oxford: Blackwell, 1996. Brundtland, H. Our Common Future: World Commission on Environment and Development . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). World Conservation...

Batu Khan

Batu Khan (1205–1255)   Reference library

Franck BILLÉ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,212 words
Illustration(s):
2

...purge of the families of Ögödei and Chagatai ensued, and from that date the Great Khanate remained a perquisite of the house of Tolui. All of Batu’s surviving tormentors, such as Yesü Möngke (Yěsù Ménggē 也速蒙哥 ‎), son and first successor of Chagatai, who had publicly ridiculed his battlefield ineptitude, were executed. In return for his support of Möngke, Batu was conceded virtual autonomy in his own territory of the Golden Horde. Möngke became Great Khan but Batu remained in charge of the Golden Horde. Moreover, as kingmaker and supporter of Möngke, Batu...

Hóng Xiùquán

Hóng Xiùquán (1814–1864)   Reference library

Richard S. HOROWITZ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,168 words
Illustration(s):
2

...), a former charcoal burner, and Xiāo Cháoguì 萧朝贵 ‎ (d. 1852 ), a farmer, had on several occasions gone into trances and begun to speak a divine voice. Hong considered the situation carefully and determined that Yang had been speaking for the Heavenly Father (God), and Xiao for the Heavenly Eldest Brother (Jesus). Hong rejected the claims of a third medium, whom he believed a charlatan. Hong’s decision—whatever his actual views of these events might be—showed considerable statesmanship. He embraced talented leaders and showed a willingness to share...

Brain Size Evolution

Brain Size Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,151 words
Illustration(s):
2

...methods are tried and true, they do not work well on partial skulls or endocasts, and preparation of the latter may damage fragile fossils. These problems can be addressed by applying medical imaging techniques such as three-dimensional computed tomography ( 3D-CT ) to the study of fossil braincases. With 3D-CT, we can scan a skull without damaging it and then use the data to generate, rotate, and measure a three-dimensional image of its endocast on a computer screen. Glenn Conroy and colleagues have validated the use of such “virtual endocasts” for...

Communication, Negotiation, and Influence at International Climate Change Meetings and Summits

Communication, Negotiation, and Influence at International Climate Change Meetings and Summits   Reference library

Hartmut Wessler, Julia Lück, and Antal Wozniak

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,585 words
Illustration(s):
3

...indicators such as extreme weather events and actual changes in temperature levels drove up media attention to climate change only in Germany ( Schäfer et al., 2014 ). They do not constitute strong across-the-board predictors of media attention. Similarly, Liu, Lindquist, and Vedlitz ( 2011 ) show that international focusing events (such as the creation of the IPCC, the IPCC assessments reports and the COPs) were the most important drivers of attention to the issue in both the New York Times and the U.S. Congress during the period from 1969 to...

The Arts and Humanities in Climate Change Engagement

The Arts and Humanities in Climate Change Engagement   Reference library

Julia B. Corbett and Brett Clark

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...help make deep connections and spur people to become active (see also O’Neill & Hulme, 2009 ; Shaw et al., 2009 ). In similar fashion, the Virtual Human Interaction Lab produced a virtual reality game and documentary , whereby participants experience ocean acidification through fish avatars. In studies associated with this project, researchers found that participants experience heightened learning associated with seeing through the eyes of the avatars. This game helps individuals visualize what ocean acidification entails and make connections between...

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