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Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

virtual reality

virtual reality n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... reality n . A computer-generated perceptual simulation of a three-dimensional image or environment with which the viewer can interact, often requiring a headset or goggles providing visual stimuli and gloves or other bodily attachments fitted with sensors. In a typical virtual reality display, turning the head produces an appropriate change in what is seen, and moving a hand activates a corresponding movement of an image of a hand in the display. The term, which became popular in the 1980s, is based on the concept of a virtual image in optics, which...

artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,281 words

...since the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Boden, M. A. (1987). Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man (2nd rev. edn.). —— (1990). The Creative Mind . —— (ed.) (1990). The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence . Clark, A. J. (1990). Associative Engines . Cope, D. (2001). Virtual Music . Feigenbaum, E. A. , and Feldman, J. (eds.) (1963). Computers and Thought . Jullam, J. (ed.) (1995). Hybrid Problems, Hybrid Solutions . Levy, S. J. (1992). Artificial Life . McClelland, J. L. , and Rumelhart, D. E. (eds.) (1986). Parallel...

consciousness

consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
12,220 words

...do the trick). When a person smells a rose, he responds to what's happening at his nostrils with a ‘virtual action pattern’: one of a set of action patterns that originated far back in evolutionary history as evaluative responses to various kinds of stimulation at the body surface—wriggles of acceptance or rejection. In modern human beings these responses are still directed to the site of stimulation, and still retain vestiges of their original function and hedonic tone; but today, instead of carrying through into overt behaviour, they have become closed off...

concepts of consciousness

concepts of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,289 words

...its visual information is readily and flexibly available for use by other mental systems in guiding personal behaviour and making reports. If one can report and act in all the relevant ways on the information in that state, then it counts as a conscious perception in the access sense. Narrative consciousness. Normal experience exhibits a narrative structure; it is the ‘story’ of the self. It forms an ongoing and relatively coherent history from the perspective of a more or less unified self, whether actual or merely virtual ( Dennett 1991 ). Only a subset...

artificial intelligence and the study of consciousness

artificial intelligence and the study of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,208 words

...for example, to understand flight by looking at birds' feathers under a microscope. Instead, the analogy continues, we only came to understand natural flight by achieving artificial flight, and we only succeeded in doing that once we stopped trying to copy slavishly the superficial characteristics of biological flyers. Similarly, AI allows one to specify and test the virtual machine that, it is proposed, provides the proper level of analysis for explaining mentality. 4. Difficulties There are several reasons why one might think that AI cannot contribute to the...

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