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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

abacus

abacus   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
452 words

...and whose value depends on their relative position at a given time in a structured space. The rules of manipulation of these entities are designed to produce as an output information that would not be available otherwise or that would be available only through the lengthy and painstaking process of manipulating the actual items. The abacus method of reckoning also allows one to perform operations on virtual quantities irrespective of whether or not these quantities correspond to real objects. The word calculus comes from the Latin word for pebble and...

deixis

deixis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
753 words

...taken out of such situations, these linguistic forms are, so to speak, empty. They have no referential autonomy, unlike an expression such as “the blue book,” which conveys to the mind the virtual presence of an object of the world endowed with a set of qualities and determinations. The determinations of I, you, here and now , for example, in the normal use of language, vary with each situation, a characteristic that Otto Jespersen ( 1922 ) captured by categorizing these linguistic forms under the metaphorical term shifter , thus indicating that their...

neurosemiotics

neurosemiotics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
747 words

...of the environment as meaningful, and the general capacity to engage in symbolic interactions. Neurosemiotics attempts to correlate neurophysiological processes with well‐defined aspects of semiotic behavior in order to better understand the information‐processing systems that sustain them and to devise appropriate remedial strategies when these capacities become impaired because of disease or injury. However, neurosemiotics today designates a rather virtual domain within the neurosciences, which are still compartmentalized along traditional lines such as...

allegory

allegory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,899 words
Illustration(s):
1

...network existing in another domain of experience. This is not the same thing as the passage from virtual to actual described by Greimas (i.e., from abstract relations to a narrative articulation of those relations). The allegorical meaning of a text is mimetic and referential, replicating in the domain of ideas and feelings the structure of events. The movement is hence the opposite of the virtual-actual transition. This notion of levels or planes of signifying and signification raises in turn the problem of the transfer from one to the other(s). On the basis...

T

T   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,599 words

...vowel and before a second vowel. This pronunciation is typical of AmE and AusE, making virtual homophones of such pairs as atom/Adam, latter/ladder, waiting/wading, writing/riding . It is also heard sporadically in BrE, especially in certain rapid colloquial expressions, such as I’d better go, get out , and not a hope . Palatalized T (1) When t is palatalized before u , it represents the affricate otherwise spelt ch as in church : before -ure ( capture, culture, fracture, legislature, picture, temperature ), before -ual ( actual,...

actants

actants   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,669 words

... (sender versus receiver), Eve being at the same time the subject and the sender. In Souriau's inventory, the actantial pair Sender versus Receiver is said to be clearly marked and to correspond to the Arbiter, Awarder of Good, and the virtual Beneficiary of Good. In Propp's inventory, they are less obvious. The Sender is concretized into two distinct actors, the dispatcher and the father of the sought-for person, while the Receiver is fused completely with the hero (Subject), having no separate sphere of action. The activity of both of these Senders is...

Paris School

Paris School   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,439 words

...disjunctions, and transformations. The principle of confrontation between subject and antisubject was interpreted as an elementary polemicocontractual relation. Whether engaged in conversation or argumentation or actually fighting, the subjects were considered to be involved in relations of trust or conflict. A series of modalizations was then postulated: two virtualizing modalities (wanting and having to) and two actualizing ones (being able to and knowing how to) that could account for the subject's competence, existence, and performance. Although...

Audience

Audience   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
11,691 words

...reality or truth as created by the author, text, and reader; mass communication and cultural studies scholars, who measure and question the effects of media on the audience; telecommunications scholars, who investigate the size and scope of virtual audiences; and postmodern scholars, who encourage new conceptualizations of the audience as a community or forum. These groups advance differing ideas about the audience, but a key product from recent research is that scholars have imagined the audience as powerful, and not simply a receptacle of rhetoric. Even though...

Reception theory

Reception theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,991 words

...and it may be conceived best as a potential waiting to be realized. Concretization, by contrast, refers to the product of our own productive activity; it is the realization of the text in the mind of the reader, accomplished by the filling in of Leerstellen (blanks or gaps) to eliminate indeterminacy. Finally, the work of art is neither text nor concretization, but something in between. It occurs at the point of convergence of text and reader, a point that can never be completely defined. The work of art is characterized by its virtual nature and is...

Technical communication

Technical communication   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,953 words

...the forms of probability theory, risk–benefit analysis, and impressive game theory simulation. But this may only complicate the Faustian bargain, rather than ending it. In tacitly promising that nothing can occur in ordinary reality that has not already been anticipated in virtual reality, the burden of compensation simply increases exponentially when something unanticipated actually occurs. In their study of “Accidental Rhetoric: The Root Metaphors of Three-Mile Island 2” ( 1981 ), Thomas Farrell and G. Thomas Goodnight noticed that technical...

Memory

Memory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
8,288 words

...during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries as it grew less necessary for practical rhetoric. Guides to memory proliferated, but also grew increasingly dogmatic or esoteric, as if their authors were rehearsing something of which they understood the theory but had not experienced the practice. Humanist scholarship placed a premium on reviving originals at the level of the word and even of the letter. The flexibility and rhetoricity of memory were ill-suited to this precise reproduction, and actual material remainders of the past like...

African-American rhetoric

African-American rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,882 words

...slavery. And it has self-consciously constituted an African-American ēthos . When one thinks about black public speech, one must consider a cultural history wherein the very act of black speaking (and writing) was subject to severe censure. Attempting to keep black folks in their place, the institution of slavery was erected and sustained by strict regulations against the kinds of public rituals and practices that make an African-American rhetorical tradition possible. In the antebellum South, the very idea of an African-American “public” was a virtual...

logical

logical   Reference library

The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...1 Of or relating to logic. In computing and electronics, use *logic as an adjective when it relates to hardware. 2 Conceptual or virtual or involving conceptual entities, as opposed to physical or actual (e.g. logical connection, logical...

not

not   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,369 words

...is not to say that I do not think that some of the dissents are not preferrable [ sic ] and not to publish them would hurt everyone — Bull. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci . , 1988 . 6 Superfluous not . Not is sometimes introduced in a subordinate clause as an echo of an actual or virtual negative in the main clause in a way that may seem at first sight superfluous, e.g. I shouldn’t wonder if it didn’t turn to snow now. This is not uncommon in unscripted speech, and can be interpreted as a way of reinforcing the uncertainty expressed in the main clause by...

Noel

Noel   Quick reference

New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
290 words

...contractual, factual, tactual • perpetual • aspectual , effectual, intellectual • conceptual , perceptual • contextual , textual • habitual , ritual • conflictual • instinctual • spiritual • mutual • punctual • virtual • casual • audio-visual , televisual, visual • usual • gradual • individual • menstrual • actual • asexual , bisexual, heterosexual, homosexual, psychosexual, sexual, transsexual, unisexual • accentual , conventual, eventual • Samuel • annual , biannual, Emanuel, Emmanuel, manual • Lemuel • consensual , sensual • ...

hell

hell n.   Reference library

Green's Dictionary of Slang

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
21,336 words

...Floor 88: ‘Well, I'll go to hell,’ Jack said. just for the hell of it see for the ( sheer ) hell of it above. look like hell ( v. ) of a person, to appear extremely unwell, whether through actual illness or through the effects of drink or drugs. 1939 ‘Johnny's Dead’ in Lingenfelter et al. Songs of the Amer. West ( 1968 ) 49: He was all tuckered out / And his oxen looked like h---. 1944 A. Kapelner Lonely Boy Blues ( 1965 ) 116: Harry, you look like hell! You look like a dead dog! 1982 G.V. Higgins Patriot Game ( 1985 ) 17: You looked...

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