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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

visualization

visualization   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...virtual reality-type techniques for practice runs. You can test your powers of visualization by imagining an experience (e.g. making a successful putt at golf) and then rate the vividness of your images using the following scale: Vividness of Images Rating clear and vivid as the actual experience 5 moderately clear and vivid 4 not clear but recognizable 3 dim and hardly recognizable 2 thinking of experience but no image 1 If your rating was poor, you can improve your powers of visualization by relaxing and clearing your mind. Sit in a comfortable chair and...

Karma pa

Karma pa   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...forced into a life of virtual exile near the Sino-Tibetan border in the east as his patron, the king of Gtsang, was defeated by the Gushri Khan, patron of the Dge lugs. As the war came to an end, the tenth Karma pa returned to Lha sa where he established ties with the fifth Dalai Lama Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho . The eleventh Karma pa Ye shes rdo rje and twelfth Karma pa Byang chub rdo rje lived relatively short lives, although the latter made an important journey through Nepal together with his disciple, the brilliant scholar and Sanskritist Si tu ...

Athletes as Heroes

Athletes as Heroes   Reference library

Steven J. JACKSON

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
1,518 words

...ways ( Ingham, Howell, and Swetman 1993 ). First, a person can perform an extraordinary superhuman feat. In actual fact heroes are often people who perform ordinary things but at a much higher level and with much greater consistency than the average person. A few people who fit this category might include: Australian cricket great Sir Donald Bradman ; Olympic stars such as Babe Didrikson , Jessie Owens , Paavo Nurmi , and Nadia Comăneci ; and professional athletes such as Michael Jordan , Wayne Gretzky , Serena Williams , and Michael Schumacher ....

Officiating

Officiating   Reference library

David Neil SACKS and Loretta A. HANDEGARD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
3,603 words

...Canadian football, field hockey, baseball, rodeo, NASCAR and Indy automobile racing, tennis, rugby league, rugby union, and cricket. Because of the cost of equipment, its use remains restricted to the highest levels of sport. FIFA long resisted using technology in soccer but after several missed goal calls, in 2012 it approved both camera and magnetic systems to detect goal scoring. Among possible future technological innovations are the use of the virtual first-down in football and pitch tracking in baseball. Both are already used in television...

Marketing

Marketing   Reference library

David K. STOTLAR

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
5,791 words

...satisfaction. In today’s market there are plenty of choices for sport services, and if an organization does not show a sincere concern for the customer, the customer will go elsewhere. In the end customer satisfaction is based on the relationship between the consumer’s expectation and actual delivery. The Sport Marketing Process In the 1960s, business leader and scholar E. Jerome McCarthy came up with the concept of the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place , and promotion . This concept formed the framework around which marketers discussed...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
10,154 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ages of 16 and 20. There are differences among men and women, and this gap appears to be closing compared to the past where, in the 1950s, the difference was six years, while at present, it has diminished to two years. Thus, boys start at the age 16 to 18 and girls 18 to 20 ( Ioannidi et al. 2000 ). Research also showed that the most frequent types of contact are through hugging, deep (open mouth) kissing, petting above and below the waist, sleeping together (without sexual intercourse), and oral and vaginal sex. In a 2002 survey on virtual sex among...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

William J. BAKER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
5,528 words

...in the United States; two decades later Bishop Bernard J. Sheil founded the Catholic Youth Organization with the intention of using boxing and basketball programs to prevent juvenile delinquency. During the 1920s a nearby little Catholic college, Notre Dame, emerged as a national American football power. Religious and sport mythology mingled freely in the virtual canonization of all-American halfback George Gipp and Coach Knute Rockne ; the famous metaphor of the Four Horsemen came right out of a biblical text. For American Jews, too, religious traditions...

Portugal

Portugal   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
22,774 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the oldest nations in Europe and its actual frontiers are almost the same since the 13th century. There has also been a considerable stability in the constitution of the population in its majority Caucasian character over the centuries. Although having been influenced by several races and cultures throughout history, the Portuguese are essentially a Latin people, with concepts of gender roles and sexuality similar to those existing in other south European Latin countries like Spain and Italy. After the revolution of 1974 and the independence of the colonies...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and Patterns Robert T. Francoeur * A. Research Weaknesses and Challenges Five weaknesses or shortcomings and three challenges can be identified in the current research on autoerotic attitudes and behavior patterns in the U.S.A. The weaknesses are: 1. the virtual absence of recent data on noncollege men and women, especially married women and men; 2. the small sample sizes in available research; 3. a problem with the representativeness of the samples; 4. very limited or no data on African-Americans, Latinos, and other ethnic/racial groups; and 5. a...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
42,021 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to violence (including domestic violence) and posttraumatic stress disorders. Claims had been made that, in such discussions, it is difficult to distinguish between political stands and professional opinions. The possible contribution of these issues on the actual shaping of sexual and dyadic constructs will be discussed in several instances. 3. Knowledge and Education about Sexuality A. Government Policies and Sex Education Programs The educational system in Israel is divided between the general educational system and religious ones. This necessitates separate...

Croatia

Croatia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,611 words
Illustration(s):
1

...40% of girls and 65% of boys between 15 and 19 years of age have had two or more lifetime sexual partners, and 22% of girls and 44% of boys have had three or more. The pattern of sexual relationships among adolescents is the well-known serial monogamy. They remain faithful to their partner until the relationship is over and then move to another relationship. Adolescents have sexual intercourse sporadically and less frequently than older single people. The frequency of sexual intercourse among adolescents is related to the proportion of actual sexually active...

Thailand

Thailand   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,958 words
Illustration(s):
1

...women are working in Japan as “virtual indentured sex slaves” in bars controlled by Japanese gangsters. These women, mostly from rural villages of Thailand, are usually sold by Thai brokers for an average of US$14,000 each, and then resold to the clubs by Japanese brokers for about US$30,000. The women are obligated and threatened to work under hostile circumstances to earn this sum of money, but very few can. The recent concern about child sex workers in Thailand seems to have been fueled by the awareness of the HIV pandemic and the growing anguish about child...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
30,636 words
Illustration(s):
1

...but their usage is widespread. Dealers in Sokoto, Nigeria, and in Maradil in neighboring Niger Republic are known for their virtual monopoly on some of the most popular brands. 6. Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors Uwem Edimo Esiet A. Children and Adolescents From what little is known, the incidence of same-sex sexual behavior among children and adolescents is very low. Incidents have been reported within same-sex institutions. B. Adults More adult homosexual behavior is being recorded. One reason cited for this behavior is the myth that...

Denmark

Denmark   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
16,879 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Western countries, the gay and lesbian community is dispersed and manifold, with a virtual abundance of lifestyles open to view (Lofstrom 1998 ). Along with late-modern life conditions and the gradual demolition of sharp, mutually excluding sexual categories, homosexuality is being further de-dramatized. Thus, even though few Danes presently label themselves as homosexuals, it is generally agreed upon that same-sex relations will eventually appear in a more-relaxed manner among younger people considering themselves (and considered by others to be)...

Scotland

Scotland   Reference library

Alastair Gilmour

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...unsuitable for cultivation in harsher climates and were therefore expensive to transport from the south of England and continental Europe. Some contemporary Scottish brewers, such as the Heather Ale Company, have revisited these age-old ingredients to produce beer flavored with pine cones, gooseberries, and even seaweed with notable success. In the 1950s an “amalgamation rush” had brought about the virtual disappearance of the Scottish independent brewers. Bass Charrington, Allied, Scottish & Newcastle, and Whitbread had taken a large stake in the Scottish...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,838 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the Habsburg monarchy as the head of the Catholic alliance and Sweden as the head of the Protestant alliance. Economic activity came to a virtual halt, and, within a century, Europe had lost about half its population either to war or to starvation. Commercial brewing, which depends on an ample and steady supply of grain, of course had all but stopped too. Even the once mighty Hanseatic League could not survive the conflict and formally dissolved in 1669. It took almost a full century for Europe, and for brewing, to recover, only to be thrown back briefly into...

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