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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Karma pa

Karma pa   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...forced into a life of virtual exile near the Sino-Tibetan border in the east as his patron, the king of Gtsang, was defeated by the Gushri Khan, patron of the Dge lugs. As the war came to an end, the tenth Karma pa returned to Lha sa where he established ties with the fifth Dalai Lama Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho . The eleventh Karma pa Ye shes rdo rje and twelfth Karma pa Byang chub rdo rje lived relatively short lives, although the latter made an important journey through Nepal together with his disciple, the brilliant scholar and Sanskritist Si tu ...

Copenhagen, Diets of

Copenhagen, Diets of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,482 words

...of the larger towns, which they willingly granted in return for the virtual assurance of complete religious freedom. Faced with mounting popular opposition and unsupported by their king, the Catholic prelates pursued another course of action. In a list of twenty-seven grievances presented to Frederick I during the third week of the diet, the prelates asked that the Lutheran preachers draw up a more cogent statement of their faith, as well as an explanation of their dispute with “us and the Christian church in general.” The Catholics would draw up a similar...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,909 words
Illustration(s):
4

...vital parliament emerged, and political parties arose. However, the landed aristocracy, a group left virtually intact by Reza Shah, retained its power and privileges. The new shah, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi ( r. 1941–1979 ), inexperienced and uncertain of himself, was a British puppet. Nonetheless, he succeeded in invigorating his ties with the army and, in 1949 , oversaw the creation of a docile upper chamber (the Senate) in parliament that would support him against his critics in the lower chamber, a move many regard as a virtual coup dʿétat. The Mossadegh...

Islamic Studies

Islamic Studies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
11,026 words

...Eastern Christian communities could not mount successful missionary and military campaigns against their Muslim rulers, Western Christendom lay outside of the territory of Islamic rule ( dār al-Islām ). For the next four centuries until the beginning of the Crusades, Europeans lived in virtual ignorance of the religion and people thriving nearby in Spain. It was not until the time of the Crusades, beginning in the eleventh century, that the name Muḥammad was known among Europeans, and then in a very pejorative way. Until the eleventh century the Bible...

Fatwā

Fatwā   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,471 words

...were returned and carried away by the questioners. Varying widely in scope, fatwās have comprised both the single-word responses (“yes,” “no,” “permitted,” etc.) characteristic of some official Ottoman muftīs and also virtual treatises approaching book length. Questioners have ranged up and down the social hierarchies, including men and women of every status, from the ordinary populace to members of the elite, scholars, court judges, and even heads of state. The muftīs themselves have included modest, local-level scholars who occasionally and informally...

Psalms, Hymns, and Prayers

Psalms, Hymns, and Prayers   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...literary prayers bear a resemblance to prayers in actual use and reflect current religious practice. Besides the prayers in previously known works such as 1 Enoch, Jubilees , and Tobit , the Qumran corpus brings to light much new material of this type, including Noah's and Abraham's prayers in the Genesis Apocryphon, the Prayer of Enosh in a work by that name (4Q369), Levi's prayer in the Aramaic Levi Document, Joseph's prayer in the apocryphon named after him, the Song of Miriam in Reworked Pentateuch c , and songs of praise in the Psalms of Joshua (4Q378,...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
6,230 words

...monastic life is not a higher form of Christian faith and that it contradicts the righteousness of faith as well as Christian liberty. Wherever the Reformation was influential this view led to the virtual collapse of monasticism and thus to momentous changes in church life. In 1523 Luther also advocated the closing of convents. While at Wartburg castle Luther completed the Christmas and Advent sections of his Church Postil , a collection of exemplary sermons that became one of Luther's most well-known and most widely used writings. As a result (as well as...

Cinema

Cinema   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,492 words
Illustration(s):
2

...resumed, and the artistic quality of Indonesian films, as well as the number of actual movies produced, were significantly reduced. From 115 movies in 1990 , Indonesian production dropped to just 37 in 1993 . What was created were exploitive, adult-themed B-movies shown in budget cinemas and outdoor screenings or for television. Yet, under the Reformasi movement of the post-Suharto era, independent directors were finally allowed to address such previously prohibited topics as politics, race, religion, class conflict, and sexuality. India and Pakistan. At...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
9,879 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in law and order and the judiciary's interference in the running of the state as the prime reasons for this action. Replacing dissenting judges with handpicked appointees, and ruling by decree, Musharraf's objective appeared to be to retain personal power by gaining judicial approval for virtual martial law. Nevertheless, he gave up his position of army chief on November 28, 2007, under U.S. pressure, but the legitimacy of his presidential election remained contested. However, Musharraf's action led to increased domestic opposition and widespread...

Islam

Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
46,709 words
Illustration(s):
19

...and Kubrawīyah. The hierarchical organization of these Ṣūfī networks helped to mobilize large numbers of Hui during economic and political crises in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, assisting widespread Muslim-led rebellions and resistance movements against late Ming and Qing imperial rule in Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu, and Xinjiang. The 1912 Nationalist revolution allowed further autonomy in regions of Muslim concentration in the northwest, and wide areas came under virtual control by Muslim warlords, leading to frequent intra-Muslim and...

Winter, Paul

Winter, Paul (1939)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
899 words

...worship (Albanese 1990 ). By including actual echo and by using “echo” as trope in his music, Winter conjures a sacred antiphonal relationship with the land. This call and response and Winter's play of surfaces and sound evoke a sense of intimacy, a reciprocal love affair between the human and nonhuman world that imbues Winter's composition and performance. In many respects, Winter's commitment to the importance of so-called “natural music” or “Earth music” echoes David Abram 's argument in Spell of the Sensuous that in modernity cultures ultimately end up...

Ülken, Hilmi Ziya

Ülken, Hilmi Ziya (1901–74)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
2,417 words

...dyads and values; in the second the Absolute Being, namely God, who surrounds and surpasses the previous ones. Since the Absolute Being cannot be known but believed, then the method that leads to this belief is ‘virtual intuition’. Here Hilmi Ziya makes a distinction between actual and virtual intuition. The actual intuition acting within consciousness and time cannot apprehend the Absolute Being. However, virtual intuition conjoining the experienced with what is perceived and realities with the ideal may apprehend the Absolute Being at the same time and in the...

Popular Culture and Religion in America

Popular Culture and Religion in America   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,468 words

...and Virtual Reality and Heidi Campbell’s edited volume, Playing with Religion in Digital Games . Games as well as other forms of popular culture appear in Karin Van Nieuwkerk, Mark Levine, and Martin Stokes’s Islam and Popular Culture and in Gregory Grieves’s Cyber Zen: Imagining Authentic Buddhist Identity, Community and Practices in the Virtual World of Second Life . The Journal of Religion and Film, Journal of Religion and Popular Culture , and Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture are sites where these conversations about religion and...

A Religio-Ecological Perspective on Religion and Nature

A Religio-Ecological Perspective on Religion and Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,054 words

...connections with a mythicized “pioneer” past and wilderness onto which is projected a sacred aura of pristine purity. In the post-industrial world, where virtual reality is increasingly replacing normative reality, the traditional real world is becoming transformed into a realm of fantasy, and experience in nature qua nature is being replaced by actual (e.g., dirt bikes and “personal water craft”) and vicarious thrills. Animals become valued with no understanding of their life cycles and ecological situations and are understood to be utterly divorced from...

Zhuangzi

Zhuangzi   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,057 words

...Chinese equivalent to the Western term “nature” (“nature” commonly understood as the material, nonhumanmade elements on Earth). Yet the text makes constant lyrical use of actual plant, animal, meteorological, and geographical phenomena, sometimes as virtual beings, often as metaphorical devices. Usually the obvious linkage or equivalence is made by the reader between Western “nature” and Zhuangzi's concept of dao (the “Way” or “flow” of reality). Many readers also “read into” Zhuangzi's dao the entire conceptual structure of Laozi's Daode-jing ( dao,...

Material Culture and Embodiment in American Religion

Material Culture and Embodiment in American Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,672 words
Illustration(s):
11

...freedom. The distinction was to be observed and implemented aesthetically. Church buildings were affective technologies for doing religion. Space exerted emotional effects that worked in tandem with intellectual and moral capacities to make Protestant worship possible. 35 Projecting the Body. We have seen how people live in their bodies, changing their form, adding to their surfaces, and modifying their operation. But they also extend or project their bodies, transforming them from actual structures into virtual agents. People live in time, toward the...

Tourism to Sacred Places in America: A Spatial Analysis

Tourism to Sacred Places in America: A Spatial Analysis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,588 words
Illustration(s):
5

...religious sense has grown murky. People make “pilgrimages” to the hyperreal Disneyland, for example, and engage in ritualistic behavior, oftentimes yearly. Places like Disneyland are easily reproducible and underscore how place is a product that can be replicated, and such an analysis can extend to more traditional sacred sites as well. Another example of the ever-evolving landscape of sacred tourism is in virtual reality: as computing power increases and virtual reality becomes more widespread, people are increasingly engaging in cybertourism without ever...

Jewelry

Jewelry   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,624 words
Illustration(s):
2

...dates from the late 18th century and was made mainly in San῾a . The origins of the tradition are unclear, and suggestions have ranged from pre-Islamic South Arabia to India. Yemeni Jews had a virtual monopoly on the production of jewelry, and the art was passed from father to son. Yemeni jewelry therefore shows a uniform conservative style in which motifs and shapes are repeated in varied combinations. Traditional jewelry is of silver, sometimes gilded, and uses such techniques as repoussé, filigree, granulation and appliqué. The different elements are...

Subject matter

Subject matter   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
13,008 words
Illustration(s):
4

...witches and warlocks, demons, fairies and sirens—artists were spoilt for choice. But these texts also struck a more elevated chord as treasure-houses of myth, interpreting the past in heroic terms and providing models for conduct as well as material for entertainment. Hence the emphasis was on the great kings and heroes of Iranian legend—Gayumars, Tahmuras, Jamshid, Kaykhusraw and Faridun, Zal, Suhrab and Rustam—and actual historical figures too, such as Iskandar (Alexander the Great) and the Sasanian monarchs. History and myth mingle, and facts are...

Religion, Philosophy of in Islam

Religion, Philosophy of in Islam   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
10,738 words

...will take into account various historical and social factors, as it must. But there are sometimes causes that are internal to a tradition (especially a religious tradition!) which emerge in opposition to intellectual and philosophical speculation. There can be no doubt that some such internal factors have been responsible for the decline in, and now virtual absence of, serious Islamic philosophical thought. William Montgomery Watt observes that traditionalist Muslims today ‘know of no philosophy since Averroes, and are completely unaware of the new challenges...

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