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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

design

design   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Dance (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
1,313 words

...take over from physical stage settings; virtual dancers or avatars may appear among the live dancers, the use of 3D imagery completely re-drawing the stage space. In some cases these digital effects are interactive, with light, images, and sound triggered by the actual movements of the dancers. By the late 20th century almost all costume options became available to dance, from historically realistic costumes to tutus, jeans, designer clothes, and nudity. Most costumes still aim to flatter the dancers and give them freedom to move—although many...

Golden Cockerel, The

Golden Cockerel, The   Quick reference

The Grove Book of Operas (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Music, Opera, Performing arts
Length:
2,075 words

...advanced in spots to virtual atonality, making The Golden Cockerel a classic example of early modernism (its most direct issue again being early Stravinsky: compare the title characters' music in The Firebird or The Nightingale ). But, as King Dodon says in Act 3, ‘to everything there is a limit’. There was a line, firmly drawn in Professor Rimsky‐Korsakov's imagination, that he would not and could not cross. ‘There you are, decadents, have a feast’, he remarked with nervous testiness in a letter to a friend, ‘but still and all, pornographic clowns,...

Artists and Dance

Artists and Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
11,431 words

...an imaginary blend of the Barrison Sisters, the Valkyries, Duncan, and Fuller; like innumerable other such dancerlike images by Moser and his Viennese colleagues, they suggest a virtual identification of artistic regeneration with the spirit of the evolving “new” dance. The Viennese dancer Grete Wiesenthal , the daughter of a painter, helped to turn this dream into reality. Inspired by Duncan's example, and with the assistance of the composer Gustav Mahler and the stage designer and painter Alfred Roller , she left the Vienna State Opera Ballet in ...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
6,510 words

...range, and sculptural pose—the dancer as ideal—and this was also the focus of his late paintings. Publicity, souvenir, and amateur photography of dancers also flourished by the century's end. In 1883 , Benjamin Falk photographed the entire cast of A Russian Honeymoon on the stage of New York's Madison Square Theater, the first time a full setting and cast of a theatrical production was photographed in a scene from an actual performance, as the audience would have observed them. The shot used one long series of electric lights for illumination and an...

Aesthetics

Aesthetics   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
11,897 words

...Tolstoy and Collingwood, he believes that all art—including dance—consists primarily of the expression of emotion. Collingwood, Langer, Arnheim, and Goodman argue that expression in dance is a form of human symbolic behavior. According to Langer, the feeling in a work of art represents the artist's idea of the feeling; dance is virtual, not actual, gesture; and the feeling that governs the dance is imagined, not actual. Arnheim defines expression as an essential property of physical and mental processes. The expressive properties, including feeling and...

Film and Video

Film and Video   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
11,734 words

...the use of virtual reality to create cyber-space dance environments. A few of the many artists exploring the interactive performance possibilities offered by combinating dance with video, animation, sound engineering, and Internet technologies include choreographer Dawn Stoppiello and composer Mark Coniglio under the rubric of their New York-based Troika Ranch; Amanda Steggel , creator of the performance/web-site “M@ggies Love Bytes”; and Susie Ramsay , an American based in Spain. Several symposiums and academic conferences on dance and technology have...

Instruments and technology

Instruments and technology   Reference library

Edmund A. Bowles

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,826 words

...promise to diminish further the separation between instrument and musician, while the advent of virtual instruments calls into question conventional definitions of ‘musical instrument’. Further discussion of technologies is included in articles on individual instruments. Bibliography F.K. Prieberg : Musica ex machina: über das Verhältnis von Musik und Technik (Berlin, 1960) E.A. Bowles : ‘On the Origin of the Keyboard Mechanism in the Late Middle Ages’, Technology and Culture , vol.7 (1966), 152–62 E.A. Bowles : ‘Musicke’s Handmaiden...

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer music

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer music   Reference library

Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, and Nadine Hubbs

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,436 words
Illustration(s):
1

...jazz pianist and saxophonist Billy (born Dorothy) Tipton lived 50 years as a man, his passing granting entrée to a male-dominated music and its venues, and a life and career marked by his impeccable improvisations, gift for mimicry, “marriages” to women, and adopted sons (Middlebrook). Billy Strayhorn , composer of one of the most famous titles in the history of jazz, “Take the A train,” and a good deal else many people associate with his mentor Duke Ellington, accepted virtual anonymity and hid his abundant talent behind Ellington's benign and affectionate...

Computers and music

Computers and music   Reference library

John Strawn and Alan Shockley

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,519 words

...to recreate the actual body of the instrument producing the sound, and the actuator of the sound on that instrument. Researchers have created algorithmically various virtual musical instruments, but have not stopped at recreation of existing instruments; they have also modeled many hypothetical instruments (what would a violin made of glass sound like, what about a 50-foot contrabass, or a plucked flute?). One of the key researchers in this area has been computer scientist Perry Cook , who, with a joint appointment in computer science and in music at...

Roman Catholic Church

Roman Catholic Church   Reference library

John Koegel, William Summers, Margaret Cayward, John Koegel, John Koegel, John Grady, John Koegel, and John Koegel

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
12,672 words

...of Santiago de Cuba, until 1787 , and briefly to the Bishop of Havana, until 1793 . Spanish mission and parish establishments in New Mexico and Arizona were under the jurisdiction of the Bishops of Durango in New Spain, and those in Texas were under the domain of the Bishops of Guadalajara and Durango, and later the Bishops of Linares (in Monterrey). However, due to vast distances episcopal visitations were rare, and Franciscan friars and their superiors had virtual control over religious matters throughout the Southwest and in California. Franciscans in...

Timpani

Timpani   Reference library

James Blades and Edmund A. Bowles

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...due in part to the general use of sponge-headed mallets providing more ‘bounce’ and capable of faster rolls. Cadences, particularly final ones, had always provided the timpanist with an opportunity for playing loud rolls and for conspicuous display. This was especially true during the Baroque, when the mounted kettledrummer was expected to end with a flourish, demonstrating his elegance and skill. In describing just such a procedure, Speer (1697) printed what amounts to a virtual cadenza for the instrument, adding that the drummer should execute a long roll...

Organ

Organ   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
67,540 words
Illustration(s):
11

...octave apart as to suggest actual stops to be drawn. For a concerto or a prelude and fugue it is rarely clear on whose authority the manuals (and particularly the manual changes) have been specified in the manuscript copies. The subject is thus open to many solutions and suggestions. But on no single organ that Bach is known to have played would all his organ music have sounded at its best or been given a registration suitable to its carefully conceived style and genre. 12 . Splendours of Europe, 1650–1800. Between 1725 and 1750 many important organs...

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