You are looking at 1-20 of 38 entries  for:

  • All : actual and virtual x
  • Regional and National History x
clear all

View:

Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Project Hope

Project Hope   Reference library

Jean W. YAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...educational facilities and teaching quality, establishing Stars of Hope Scholarships in high schools and universities. To qualify for the scholarship, a student has to (1) have excellent academic achievement, (2) actively participate in community activities, and (3) be in need of financial aid to finish school (different places have different standards, CYDF is also carrying out distance-education initiatives (virtual education, that is, providing education through internet or a closed-circuit TV system), training rural teachers, and reinforcing the...

Batu Khan

Batu Khan (1205–1255)   Reference library

Franck BILLÉ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,212 words
Illustration(s):
2

...purge of the families of Ögödei and Chagatai ensued, and from that date the Great Khanate remained a perquisite of the house of Tolui. All of Batu’s surviving tormentors, such as Yesü Möngke (Yěsù Ménggē 也速蒙哥 ‎), son and first successor of Chagatai, who had publicly ridiculed his battlefield ineptitude, were executed. In return for his support of Möngke, Batu was conceded virtual autonomy in his own territory of the Golden Horde. Möngke became Great Khan but Batu remained in charge of the Golden Horde. Moreover, as kingmaker and supporter of Möngke, Batu...

Hóng Xiùquán

Hóng Xiùquán (1814–1864)   Reference library

Richard S. HOROWITZ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,168 words
Illustration(s):
2

...), a former charcoal burner, and Xiāo Cháoguì 萧朝贵 ‎ (d. 1852 ), a farmer, had on several occasions gone into trances and begun to speak a divine voice. Hong considered the situation carefully and determined that Yang had been speaking for the Heavenly Father (God), and Xiao for the Heavenly Eldest Brother (Jesus). Hong rejected the claims of a third medium, whom he believed a charlatan. Hong’s decision—whatever his actual views of these events might be—showed considerable statesmanship. He embraced talented leaders and showed a willingness to share...

Jiāng Qīng

Jiāng Qīng (1914–1991)   Reference library

Natascha GENTZ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,147 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and public persona provide rich material to explore a wide range of issues in modern Chinese history and society: a truthful assessment of the Cultural Revolution, elite power struggles, women and politics, communism and feminism, but also more trivial matters of intrigues, power, and sex. It is therefore not surprising that Jiang Qing’s life and biography have been used to demonstrate all these aspects. The resulting disparity of details and interpretations, however, in combination with a scarcity of hard facts, makes it difficult to decipher the actual...

Roses, Wars of the

Roses, Wars of the   Reference library

Anthony James Pollard

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
681 words

...actual phrase ‘Wars of the Roses’ did not appear until the 19th cent., the idea of the warring roses was rooted in Tudor propaganda. There were three distinct phases of civil war: between 1455 and 1464 ; 1469 and 1471 ; and 1483 and 1487 . In the first two fighting for the control of royal government led to outright war for possession of the crown; the third was dynastic from the start. There was also a strong element of rivalry for local dominance, especially in northern England between the Percies and the Nevilles. The scale of the fighting and the...

Zubly, John Joachim

Zubly, John Joachim (1724–81)   Reference library

Randall M. Miller

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and meetings. He moved in line with American Whig thinking in arguing for “actual” over “virtual” representation as fundamental to liberty. In his arguments regarding Parliament’s claims to raise taxes in the colonies, as in his tilt with the Rev. Frink on an Anglican bishop, he warned of conspiracy and corruption in England as the source of tyranny threatening local authority, the true bulwark of liberty. Zubly was especially scrupulous in insisting that liberty rested on law. As revolutionary currents swelled, he feared the demagogue and worried...

Anthropology

Anthropology   Reference library

Neil L. Whitehead

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in character, such as forms of agriculture and resource extraction, has become prominent in current theoretical approaches. Moreover, the vast and functionally infinite cultural worlds generated by social media and online life more generally are just now being broached by ethnographic studies of digital contexts, ranging from virtual forms of warfare to forms of community created through video gaming, music, and sexuality. As other disciplines have taken up anthropology's distinguishing methodology of ethnography, and as the very category of the “human,”...

Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,136 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to culture. Garvey encouraged literature and the arts. His weekly Negro World , published in Harlem, became a virtual literary publication, with poems, short stories, book reviews, literary criticism, and the like. Garvey enunciated an aesthetic similar to that of the Black Arts Movement of the 1960 s. Cultural workers, he said, must be proud of their race and must reflect that pride in their work. They must never prostitute their talent at the behest of white publishers for monetary gain. Garvey was a prolific poet and a sometime playwright. Garvey’s cultural...

Digital Resources: LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies and Collections, University of Texas at Austin

Digital Resources: LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies and Collections, University of Texas at Austin   Reference library

Kent Norsworthy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,616 words

...production, are handled jointly by TAMU, Lafragua, and UT. The Centro de Recursos Académicos Informáticos Virtuales (CREATIVA) at the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí in Mexico is responsible for the design and hosting of a digital repository that will serve as a preservation and distribution system for the array of Primeros Libros image files, both archival and Web ready, where project partners in Mexico can download the images for their use. Primeros Libros partner staff at UT Austin, Texas A&M, and the Biblioteca Lafragua in Mexico continue to...

Oscar Lewis, Urban Poverty, and The Children of Sánchez

Oscar Lewis, Urban Poverty, and The Children of Sánchez   Reference library

Joshua K. Salyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,948 words

...Salyers , “Impoverished Spaces: Modernist Housing, Local Identity and the Vecindad in Tepito, 1940–1985” (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2017); Joshua Salyers , “Casa Blanca Revisited,” Virtual Narratives. Last modified August 21, 2017. https:www.virtualnarratives.org ; and Louise E. Walker , Waking from the Dream: Mexico’s Middle Classes after 1968 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013). 46. Mary Kay Vaughn and Stephen Lewis , Eagle and the Virgin: Nation and Cultural Revolution in Mexico, 1920–1940 (Durham, NC: Duke University...

Digital Resources: The José Guadalupe Posada Collection at the Ibero-American Institute

Digital Resources: The José Guadalupe Posada Collection at the Ibero-American Institute   Reference library

Ricarda Musser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,437 words

...in the collection. Users can download individual items as PDF documents and also set up virtual bookshelves. Over the commentary and crowdsourcing functions, users are invited to help with the contextualizing of the artifacts. Thus, digitization offers the basis needed for users to bring in and pool their own expertise—which in the case of the Posada Collection could be rooted in such disparate fields as literature, culture and linguistics, art history and social history, or design and typography—in a joint effort to complete the information about each single...

Catholicism in Mexico, 1910 to the Present

Catholicism in Mexico, 1910 to the Present   Reference library

Matthew Butler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
12,396 words

...devour it. Catholic social groups were amalgamated and placed on a virtual war footing in the National League for the Defense of Religious Liberty (LNDLR), founded in March 1925 ; the Calles Law of June 1926 introduced anticlerical laws so punitive that they violated the church’s canonical integrity and could not be accepted, still less by an ecclesiastical hierarchy that was schooled to defend the principle of Roman authority above all others, and that had presided over the creation of a militant laity and the muscular devotional brand of Cristo Rey. The...

Mountain Communities and Their Changing Landscapes in 19th-Century Mexico

Mountain Communities and Their Changing Landscapes in 19th-Century Mexico   Reference library

Alejandro Tortolero Villaseñor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
15,883 words

...Ultimately, a novel should be a study in morals based on historical facts.” Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, El Zarco , 8. 14. Payno described himself as an author who wrote about “people’s lives and actual portraits of Mexico.” This claim seems true, since the characters of his novels were based on actual persons. See Extracto de la causa del general Yañez y socios por varios as altos y robos cometidos en poblado y despoblado (Mexico City: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, 1988); originally published in 1839. 15. Manuel Payno , Los Bandidos de Río Frío ...

Aztec Apocalypse, 1519–1521

Aztec Apocalypse, 1519–1521   Reference library

Ross Hassig

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
18,157 words

...Marina but by Gerónimo de Aguilar, who spoke both Spanish and Maya and accompanied her throughout the Conquest. Marina’s role in the Conquest, passed over in virtual silence in Cortés’s accounts, which were written during and soon after the events chronicled, became greatly enlarged in accounts written decades after the Conquest when, as Doña Marina, she was prominent as Cortés’s consort and the mother of his son. Having defeated the Mayas at Potonchan, Cortés removed the statues of their gods there and replaced them with a cross, setting a pattern of nominal...

Roses, Wars of the

Roses, Wars of the   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
391 words

...and battles that took place between 1455 and 1487 . They are so called because of the notion that, fought between the dynasties of Lancaster and York, Lancaster was represented by a red rose, York by a white. In fact the idea of the warring roses was invented by Henry VII after he seized the throne in 1485 . While the actual phrase ‘Wars of the Roses’ did not appear until the 19th cent., the idea of the warring roses was rooted in Tudor propaganda. There were three distinct phases of civil war: between 1455 and 1464 ; 1469 and 1471 ; and 1483 ...

COINTELPRO

COINTELPRO   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,731 words

...to a virtual campaign of terrorism that included bombings of Independence Party and Socialist Party headquarters. Mari Bras's son was murdered in 1976 . Two young independentistas were murdered in Cerro Maravilla in 1978 , provoking a legislative inquiry and accusations that the FBI attempted to obstruct the investigations. According to the reporter and writer Alfred López , during a fifteen-year period ( 1971 to 1986 ) over 170 attacks of various types committed against independence movement organizations were documented. The FBI and local police...

Flipper, Henry Ossian

Flipper, Henry Ossian (b. 21 March 1856)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,415 words

...of the “shiftlessness” of the Mexican people, of their “intensely Catholic superstitions,” and of his hope that the civilizing presence of Americans would raise them out of barbarism. Patriotic to a fault, never doubting his country's superiority, Flipper carried through life the values of his early military training, values undiminished by his own unfair treatment. Beginning in 1910 the Mexican Revolution, which transformed Flipper's beloved border area into a virtual war zone, provided him with a new opportunity for national service. He drafted regular...

Northeastern Mexico

Northeastern Mexico   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,874 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mexico , a region that can be defined as one east of a virtual line linking the presentday towns of Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, and Saltillo and north of the rivers Pánuco, Moctezuma, and San Juan, that is to say, beyond the sixteenth-century limits of Mesoamerica. At the time that Cortés and his men reached the Veracruz shores in 1517 , these vast expanses of land were in fact occupied by nomadic groups of hunters and gatherers, as well as by some marginal semipermanent agriculturists, who were often called by a collective Nahuatl name, the ...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,039 words

...region where maroon communities were numerous. The end of slavery in Mesoamerica had two dimensions, virtual and factual. The former explains abolition as a biological and legal process through which the black and mulatto slaves' freeborn children were gradually assimilated into society. Unions of Africans with Spaniards, Indians, and mulattos gave rise to several legal processes that involved the inheritance of freedom under the will of the slaveowner. Slaves discovered that tribunals were a place where they could fight for their freedom. Some...

Rough Wooing

Rough Wooing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,924 words

...in both violence and military investment by the English crown in trying to solve what it convinced itself was the ‘British problem’. It resulted in what was, in effect, the last major Anglo‐Scottish war. Pinkie was the one major pitched battle in it, but Edinburgh was sacked, following a daring amphibious raid on its port of Leith in 1544 ; Dundee was reduced to a virtual pile of rubble in 1547 ; the Border zone was repeatedly savaged, and tens of thousands were killed, many homes burned and razed to the ground, and possessions and livestock stolen....

View: