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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Chiang Kai-shek as war leader

Chiang Kai-shek as war leader   Reference library

Richard Rigby

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the dynamiting of the Yellow River dykes. However, once Chiang had established his wartime capital in Chungking, and as the war stabilized and changed its nature, corruption and demoralization set in at an alarming rate, and the problems and weaknesses of Chiang's leadership became increasingly obvious. With a virtual stalemate on the ground, both communists and nationalists were able to turn their attention to their abiding mutual enmity, and the New Fourth Army incident of January 1941 , in which KMT troops destroyed a communist HQ unit, marked the...

logistics

logistics   Reference library

Charles Messenger

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,149 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the importance of Benghazi and Tobruk during the fighting. However, the logistical problems in the Western Desert paled into virtual insignificance when it came to the war on the Eastern Front. According to the German plan for the invasion of the USSR ( see BARBAROSSA ), the German armies were expected to carry out an advance of up to 1,300 km. (800 mi.) on a 1,600 km. (1,000 mi.) front in the space of just four months while totally destroying the USSR's military power in the process. Apart from the distances involved, and the high rate of advance to be...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...led insurgencies. As a fundamentalist Sunni group, Al-Qaeda is violently opposed to other interpretations of Islam and has been at the heart of much Muslim sectarian violence during the 21st century. The operations of Al-Qaeda in Iraq played a prominent part in the virtual civil war that erupted between Sunni and Shi'a factions during 2006–08 . Al-Qaeda actively sought to provoke and intensify this conflict through targeted attacks on mosques and religious pilgrims, knowing that the fury generated by such outrages would fuel an escalation of sectarian...

State, The

State, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... of 1948 and other compromises, delaying the development of combined arms warfare and perpetuating interservice rivalry that handicapped military operations and distorted military advice during the Vietnam War. MacArthur proved in some ways a more difficult problem. Charismatic and personable, he was a virtual throwback to the nineteenth century; as army commander in chief of the Pacific theater, he proved an uneasy partner to the admiral commanding the Pacific Fleet, Chester Nimitz . With the defeat of Japan, MacArthur became the virtual American...

Combat Effectiveness

Combat Effectiveness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...(land, air, sea) and nationality (allies); logistical sustainability for a campaign extended in time and/or distance; provisions for effective higher command in both the personal and the technical sense; the identification of fundamental enemy weaknesses; and the maximum combination of overwhelming firepower and surprising maneuver. Tactical effectiveness concentrates on the actual performance of combatant forces (infantry, armor, artillery, warships, combat aviation units) in engagements with the enemy. Operational and tactical effectiveness have...

Tactics

Tactics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... war plans and actual force deployment. War plans were drawn to gain sea control, support a major NATO war in Europe, and attack the Soviet homeland directly, with or without nuclear weapons . The plans envisioned battles fought against Soviet submarines, long‐range aircraft, and surface warships over the vastness of the ocean. Simultaneously, and paradoxically, the actual profitable deployment of American naval forces took place close inshore in a wide variety of circumstances and locales, involving air strikes, amphibious landings, and sustainment of...

World War II

World War II (1939–1945)   Reference library

Donald Cameron Watt, Mark A. Stoler, William L. O’Neill, Michael S. Sherry, Justus D. Doenecke, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Prizing both male virtue and women's contributions, wartime culture set the stage for a virtual invention of the “traditional family,” to the detriment of many women and homosexuals. However varied their fortunes, social groups nonetheless had something in common: their fate was now shaped by America's global power and the national government's resultant additional authority. As world war faded into cold war, this temporary change turned into a lasting one that few anticipated. Expectations were nearer the mark regarding international relations: Americans...

World War II (1939–45)

World War II (1939–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...banning segregation and discrimination in the military flowed from forces set in motion by the war, which also eroded religious and ethnic barriers. The war reworked systems of gender and sexuality in more complex ways. Prizing both male virtue and women's contributions, wartime culture set the stage for a virtual invention of the “traditional family,” to the detriment of many women and homosexuals. However varied their fortunes, social groups nonetheless had something in common: their fate was now shaped by America's global power and the national...

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Justus D. Doenecke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...he saw “the greatest opportunity in years for the establishment of a new order based on justice and on law.” On November 9–10 the Nazis engaged in a virtual pogrom called Kristallnacht , in which the Nazis looted 2,500 Jewish shops, burned 195 synagogues, and interred more than twenty thousand Jews in concentration camps. The president responded by recalling Ambassador Hugh Wilson from Berlin and by permitting some fifteen thousand refugees from Germany and Austria to remain in the United States on visitors permits. All this time, U.S. policy toward Latin...

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy   Reference library

Lawrence Freedman, Timothy J. Lynch, George Bunn, Timothy J. Lynch, Joseph M. Siracusa, and Joseph M. Siracusa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with the norms and rules of a toughened nuclear nonproliferation policy, where “compliance” means more than declarations of good intent. In future, it will also mean actual performance. “Universal,” moreover, means that nonproliferation norms and rules must be extended not only to treaty members, but to all states and to individuals and corporations as well. Six obligations form the essential core of the strategy of universal compliance, and together they constitute what might be called a “balance of obligations” among the nuclear and nonnuclear states,...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...and the scheme failed to realize enough cash, forcing him to end his siege of Tournai prematurely. He bankrupted the Italian banking firms Bardi and Peruzzi and created enormous discontent in England through increases in taxation. In November 1340 , a virtual prisoner of his creditors, Edward was forced to steal away to England. On his arrival there, he blamed his councillors; in 1341 he was forced to summon Parliament and reduce his more exorbitant demands for taxation. A truce for three years was agreed in 1343 , but it did not run its full course, and...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...and the Near East. Medieval warfare in general, and in the Crusade movement in particular, was long treated by historiographers as an essentially masculine activity in which the roles of women had little relevance. But from the late 1970s and 1980s, studies on women’s participation in the Crusade movement, women’s status in the crusader states, and Christian and Muslim perception of women all led to the rapid burgeoning of scholarly writing on these and related subjects. This significant historiographical development has done much to illuminate the actual...

Midway, Battle of

Midway, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,891 words
Illustration(s):
1

...While the raid caused little actual damage, it dealt a blow to Japanese national pride and convinced Yamamoto that what remained of the U.S. fleet must be destroyed. Battle of Midway. SBD “Dauntless” dive bombers from USS Hornet (CV-8) approaching the burning Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma to make the third set of attacks on her, during the early afternoon of June 6, 1942. Mikuma had been hit earlier by strikes from Hornet and USS Enterprise (CV-6), leaving her dead in the water and fatally damaged. National Archives and Records Administration To...

Leyte Gulf, Battle of

Leyte Gulf, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,853 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Two U.S. Coast Guard manned tank landing ships (USS LST-206 and USS LST-22) in the surf on Leyte, while soldiers build piers of sandbags to speed unloading operations on October 1, 1944. National Archives and Records Administration Planning began for a landing on Leyte, a key island on the eastern side of the Philippines . The amphibious assets of Admiral William F. Halsey ’s Third Fleet were reassigned to Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid ’s Seventh Fleet. The Seventh Fleet was to effect the actual landings at Leyte Gulf, while Halsey’s orders were to have...

Photography, Ship

Photography, Ship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,309 words
Illustration(s):
1

...American and English Yachts with Edward Burgess in 1887 , and he published The Yachtsman’s Souvenir in 1889 . These two successful publications, which included photographs of some of the greatest yachts of the time, were followed by Henry G. Peabody ’s Representative American Yachts in 1893 . Like Levick , Morris Rosenfeld was beginning his successful career at the turn of the twentieth century, and he accepted assignments from Levick early on. During the first two decades of the twentieth century, Levick and Rosenfeld had a virtual monopoly...

Film

Film   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,766 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and courage, even if their buttons were not as shiny as those of the “real” navy. A number of movies were made about World War II, such as the acclaimed The Long Voyage Home ( 1940 ), Action in the North Atlantic ( 1943 ), and San Demetrio: London ( 1943 ). Some used actual merchant seafarers as actors, such as Norway ’s Hvor fartøy flyte kan (The Norwegian Merchant Fleet during the War, 1948 .) Passenger vessels . Genres for movies about passenger ships tended to be romance ( Now, Voyager , 1942 ), light comedy ( Carry On Cruising , 1962 ), and...

Slave Trade

Slave Trade   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
5,002 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Of all races and ethnic identities, they are traded both locally and across great distances, forced into prostitution and hard labor, and ruthlessly discarded when no longer useful. Forced underground, the problem of slave trade and real or virtual bondage has become more difficult to solve than ever. It is a resurgent global phenomenon, fueled by poverty, collapsing social safety nets, privatization, population growth, regional warfare, sweeping geopolitical changes, and the complicity of political authorities, particularly in Africa, western and southern...

Telecommunications

Telecommunications   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
4,961 words

...securely and optimize distribution. On the Internet, data that is itself a commodity is accessible in virtual warehouses. Research indicates that such networks are prone to the same transient instabilities that are characteristic of large systems. Fast, stable communications do not guarantee placid markets. Global trade is not homogenous, and expansive networks create their own economic geography. Civil engineers build “ports” miles offshore at network nodes. Buyers and sellers meet in cyberspace to trade. Individuals pool their purchasing power and reverse...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,480 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of St. Paul’s ship in the storm and Odysseus’s shipwrecks, share one persisting characteristic of voyage narratives: apart from divine interventions, they are grounded in the realities of seafaring and reflect that experience directly. The connection between voyage narratives and actual voyaging grows and deepens as ships set out to explore all the oceans of the world between the middle of the fifteenth and the end of the eighteenth centuries. The great era of discovery began with Prince Henry’s interest in navigation and Portuguese ships struggling to round...

Spanish Literature

Spanish Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
9,124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Martire d’ . De Orbe Novo: The Eight Decades of Peter Martyr d’Anghera . Translated and edited by Francis Augustus MacNutt . New York: B. Franklin, 1970. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes . Cristóbal Colón. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/portal/colon . Includes digitized versions of Columbus’s texts in Spanish, images, bibliography, links, and more. Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez . The Narrative of Cabeza de Vaca . Edited and translated by Rolena Adorno and Patrick Charles Pautz . Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003. An authoritative...

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