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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...harvests and high food prices. This riotous action was striking for its ritualized forms and limited use of violence. Hardly ever attacking persons, the crowd often seized the grain or bread and sold it at what they considered a ‘fair’ price. The ruling classes had their own theatrical ways of displaying their authority. By and large the actual landowners only met the plebs face to face when cloaked in the majesty of the *law [8] or prepared to shower mercy and charity in order to cool plebeian discontent; otherwise they operated as employers and landlords...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Ireland’. However, such counter-revolutionary-inspired attempts to make the Church of England a virtual established church throughout the empire were checked by countervailing forces. In the first place, imperial administrators were well aware that too obvious an alliance with the Church of England could inflame the suspicions both of non-Christian native peoples and of European settlers outside the Anglican fold. The imperial government also had to reckon with the increasingly well- organized political voice of Protestant Dissent both at home and...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prehistory, suggesting virtual animality and absolute distance. If this racist evolutionism is typically associated with Darwinism, and indeed acquired more systematic theoretical form in the late nineteenth century, most of its familiar elements were nevertheless in place by the beginning of the century, though they jostled with other ways of perceiving human variety. Voyage and exploratory writing should not be understood as limited to the corpus of well-known voyages and descriptive works, but to include less renowned accounts, and even the cheap versions...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the form of extracts a virtual synopsis of late-eighteenth-century British and European enlightened thought. The foundations for enlightened radicalism in Ulster had, however, been laid nearly a century earlier, when Lockean ideas of social contract and popular sovereignty were related to the Irish situation by thinkers such as William Molyneux ( 1656–98 ) and Robert , Lord Molesworth ( 1656–1725 ), who also contrasted libertarian Whig principles based on the *Glorious Revolution with those of ecclesiastical and political tyranny. Another...

Zubly, John Joachim

Zubly, John Joachim (1724–81)   Reference library

Randall M. Miller

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and meetings. He moved in line with American Whig thinking in arguing for “actual” over “virtual” representation as fundamental to liberty. In his arguments regarding Parliament’s claims to raise taxes in the colonies, as in his tilt with the Rev. Frink on an Anglican bishop, he warned of conspiracy and corruption in England as the source of tyranny threatening local authority, the true bulwark of liberty. Zubly was especially scrupulous in insisting that liberty rested on law. As revolutionary currents swelled, he feared the demagogue and worried...

Copenhagen, Diets of

Copenhagen, Diets of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,482 words

...of the larger towns, which they willingly granted in return for the virtual assurance of complete religious freedom. Faced with mounting popular opposition and unsupported by their king, the Catholic prelates pursued another course of action. In a list of twenty-seven grievances presented to Frederick I during the third week of the diet, the prelates asked that the Lutheran preachers draw up a more cogent statement of their faith, as well as an explanation of their dispute with “us and the Christian church in general.” The Catholics would draw up a similar...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
6,230 words

...monastic life is not a higher form of Christian faith and that it contradicts the righteousness of faith as well as Christian liberty. Wherever the Reformation was influential this view led to the virtual collapse of monasticism and thus to momentous changes in church life. In 1523 Luther also advocated the closing of convents. While at Wartburg castle Luther completed the Christmas and Advent sections of his Church Postil , a collection of exemplary sermons that became one of Luther's most well-known and most widely used writings. As a result (as well as...

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