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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Chiang Kai-shek as war leader

Chiang Kai-shek as war leader   Reference library

Richard Rigby

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the dynamiting of the Yellow River dykes. However, once Chiang had established his wartime capital in Chungking, and as the war stabilized and changed its nature, corruption and demoralization set in at an alarming rate, and the problems and weaknesses of Chiang's leadership became increasingly obvious. With a virtual stalemate on the ground, both communists and nationalists were able to turn their attention to their abiding mutual enmity, and the New Fourth Army incident of January 1941 , in which KMT troops destroyed a communist HQ unit, marked the...

logistics

logistics   Reference library

Charles Messenger

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,149 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the importance of Benghazi and Tobruk during the fighting. However, the logistical problems in the Western Desert paled into virtual insignificance when it came to the war on the Eastern Front. According to the German plan for the invasion of the USSR ( see BARBAROSSA ), the German armies were expected to carry out an advance of up to 1,300 km. (800 mi.) on a 1,600 km. (1,000 mi.) front in the space of just four months while totally destroying the USSR's military power in the process. Apart from the distances involved, and the high rate of advance to be...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...harvests and high food prices. This riotous action was striking for its ritualized forms and limited use of violence. Hardly ever attacking persons, the crowd often seized the grain or bread and sold it at what they considered a ‘fair’ price. The ruling classes had their own theatrical ways of displaying their authority. By and large the actual landowners only met the plebs face to face when cloaked in the majesty of the *law [8] or prepared to shower mercy and charity in order to cool plebeian discontent; otherwise they operated as employers and landlords...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Ireland’. However, such counter-revolutionary-inspired attempts to make the Church of England a virtual established church throughout the empire were checked by countervailing forces. In the first place, imperial administrators were well aware that too obvious an alliance with the Church of England could inflame the suspicions both of non-Christian native peoples and of European settlers outside the Anglican fold. The imperial government also had to reckon with the increasingly well- organized political voice of Protestant Dissent both at home and...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prehistory, suggesting virtual animality and absolute distance. If this racist evolutionism is typically associated with Darwinism, and indeed acquired more systematic theoretical form in the late nineteenth century, most of its familiar elements were nevertheless in place by the beginning of the century, though they jostled with other ways of perceiving human variety. Voyage and exploratory writing should not be understood as limited to the corpus of well-known voyages and descriptive works, but to include less renowned accounts, and even the cheap versions...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the form of extracts a virtual synopsis of late-eighteenth-century British and European enlightened thought. The foundations for enlightened radicalism in Ulster had, however, been laid nearly a century earlier, when Lockean ideas of social contract and popular sovereignty were related to the Irish situation by thinkers such as William Molyneux ( 1656–98 ) and Robert , Lord Molesworth ( 1656–1725 ), who also contrasted libertarian Whig principles based on the *Glorious Revolution with those of ecclesiastical and political tyranny. Another...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...led insurgencies. As a fundamentalist Sunni group, Al-Qaeda is violently opposed to other interpretations of Islam and has been at the heart of much Muslim sectarian violence during the 21st century. The operations of Al-Qaeda in Iraq played a prominent part in the virtual civil war that erupted between Sunni and Shi'a factions during 2006–08 . Al-Qaeda actively sought to provoke and intensify this conflict through targeted attacks on mosques and religious pilgrims, knowing that the fury generated by such outrages would fuel an escalation of sectarian...

Project Hope

Project Hope   Reference library

Jean W. YAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...educational facilities and teaching quality, establishing Stars of Hope Scholarships in high schools and universities. To qualify for the scholarship, a student has to (1) have excellent academic achievement, (2) actively participate in community activities, and (3) be in need of financial aid to finish school (different places have different standards, CYDF is also carrying out distance-education initiatives (virtual education, that is, providing education through internet or a closed-circuit TV system), training rural teachers, and reinforcing the...

State, The

State, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... of 1948 and other compromises, delaying the development of combined arms warfare and perpetuating interservice rivalry that handicapped military operations and distorted military advice during the Vietnam War. MacArthur proved in some ways a more difficult problem. Charismatic and personable, he was a virtual throwback to the nineteenth century; as army commander in chief of the Pacific theater, he proved an uneasy partner to the admiral commanding the Pacific Fleet, Chester Nimitz . With the defeat of Japan, MacArthur became the virtual American...

Combat Effectiveness

Combat Effectiveness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...(land, air, sea) and nationality (allies); logistical sustainability for a campaign extended in time and/or distance; provisions for effective higher command in both the personal and the technical sense; the identification of fundamental enemy weaknesses; and the maximum combination of overwhelming firepower and surprising maneuver. Tactical effectiveness concentrates on the actual performance of combatant forces (infantry, armor, artillery, warships, combat aviation units) in engagements with the enemy. Operational and tactical effectiveness have...

Tactics

Tactics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... war plans and actual force deployment. War plans were drawn to gain sea control, support a major NATO war in Europe, and attack the Soviet homeland directly, with or without nuclear weapons . The plans envisioned battles fought against Soviet submarines, long‐range aircraft, and surface warships over the vastness of the ocean. Simultaneously, and paradoxically, the actual profitable deployment of American naval forces took place close inshore in a wide variety of circumstances and locales, involving air strikes, amphibious landings, and sustainment of...

Batu Khan

Batu Khan (1205–1255)   Reference library

Franck BILLÉ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,212 words
Illustration(s):
2

...purge of the families of Ögödei and Chagatai ensued, and from that date the Great Khanate remained a perquisite of the house of Tolui. All of Batu’s surviving tormentors, such as Yesü Möngke (Yěsù Ménggē 也速蒙哥 ‎), son and first successor of Chagatai, who had publicly ridiculed his battlefield ineptitude, were executed. In return for his support of Möngke, Batu was conceded virtual autonomy in his own territory of the Golden Horde. Möngke became Great Khan but Batu remained in charge of the Golden Horde. Moreover, as kingmaker and supporter of Möngke, Batu...

Hóng Xiùquán

Hóng Xiùquán (1814–1864)   Reference library

Richard S. HOROWITZ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,168 words
Illustration(s):
2

...), a former charcoal burner, and Xiāo Cháoguì 萧朝贵 ‎ (d. 1852 ), a farmer, had on several occasions gone into trances and begun to speak a divine voice. Hong considered the situation carefully and determined that Yang had been speaking for the Heavenly Father (God), and Xiao for the Heavenly Eldest Brother (Jesus). Hong rejected the claims of a third medium, whom he believed a charlatan. Hong’s decision—whatever his actual views of these events might be—showed considerable statesmanship. He embraced talented leaders and showed a willingness to share...

World War II

World War II (1939–1945)   Reference library

Donald Cameron Watt, Mark A. Stoler, William L. O’Neill, Michael S. Sherry, Justus D. Doenecke, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Prizing both male virtue and women's contributions, wartime culture set the stage for a virtual invention of the “traditional family,” to the detriment of many women and homosexuals. However varied their fortunes, social groups nonetheless had something in common: their fate was now shaped by America's global power and the national government's resultant additional authority. As world war faded into cold war, this temporary change turned into a lasting one that few anticipated. Expectations were nearer the mark regarding international relations: Americans...

World War II (1939–45)

World War II (1939–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...banning segregation and discrimination in the military flowed from forces set in motion by the war, which also eroded religious and ethnic barriers. The war reworked systems of gender and sexuality in more complex ways. Prizing both male virtue and women's contributions, wartime culture set the stage for a virtual invention of the “traditional family,” to the detriment of many women and homosexuals. However varied their fortunes, social groups nonetheless had something in common: their fate was now shaped by America's global power and the national...

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Justus D. Doenecke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...he saw “the greatest opportunity in years for the establishment of a new order based on justice and on law.” On November 9–10 the Nazis engaged in a virtual pogrom called Kristallnacht , in which the Nazis looted 2,500 Jewish shops, burned 195 synagogues, and interred more than twenty thousand Jews in concentration camps. The president responded by recalling Ambassador Hugh Wilson from Berlin and by permitting some fifteen thousand refugees from Germany and Austria to remain in the United States on visitors permits. All this time, U.S. policy toward Latin...

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy   Reference library

Lawrence Freedman, Timothy J. Lynch, George Bunn, Timothy J. Lynch, Joseph M. Siracusa, and Joseph M. Siracusa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with the norms and rules of a toughened nuclear nonproliferation policy, where “compliance” means more than declarations of good intent. In future, it will also mean actual performance. “Universal,” moreover, means that nonproliferation norms and rules must be extended not only to treaty members, but to all states and to individuals and corporations as well. Six obligations form the essential core of the strategy of universal compliance, and together they constitute what might be called a “balance of obligations” among the nuclear and nonnuclear states,...

Jiāng Qīng

Jiāng Qīng (1914–1991)   Reference library

Natascha GENTZ

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,147 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and public persona provide rich material to explore a wide range of issues in modern Chinese history and society: a truthful assessment of the Cultural Revolution, elite power struggles, women and politics, communism and feminism, but also more trivial matters of intrigues, power, and sex. It is therefore not surprising that Jiang Qing’s life and biography have been used to demonstrate all these aspects. The resulting disparity of details and interpretations, however, in combination with a scarcity of hard facts, makes it difficult to decipher the actual...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...and the scheme failed to realize enough cash, forcing him to end his siege of Tournai prematurely. He bankrupted the Italian banking firms Bardi and Peruzzi and created enormous discontent in England through increases in taxation. In November 1340 , a virtual prisoner of his creditors, Edward was forced to steal away to England. On his arrival there, he blamed his councillors; in 1341 he was forced to summon Parliament and reduce his more exorbitant demands for taxation. A truce for three years was agreed in 1343 , but it did not run its full course, and...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...and the Near East. Medieval warfare in general, and in the Crusade movement in particular, was long treated by historiographers as an essentially masculine activity in which the roles of women had little relevance. But from the late 1970s and 1980s, studies on women’s participation in the Crusade movement, women’s status in the crusader states, and Christian and Muslim perception of women all led to the rapid burgeoning of scholarly writing on these and related subjects. This significant historiographical development has done much to illuminate the actual...

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