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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

popular culture

popular culture   Reference library

Nick Lowe

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
708 words

...artefacts, and practices and their mass audiences and is generally theorized as being in tension with high culture, which it may openly or implicitly challenge, pastiche or parody. Key media include popular theatre, song and dance, fiction, painting and illustration, and, from the 20th cent., film , television, comics, and board and electronic games, together with non-fictional forms such as documentary and news media, general-audience historical writing, military re-enactment, and virtual worlds. The foundational, pre-industrial, pagan, heroic, and mythopoetic...

popular culture

popular culture   Reference library

Nick Lowe

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
735 words

...artefacts, and practices and their mass audiences and is generally theorized as being in tension with high culture, which it may openly or implicitly challenge, pastiche or parody. Key media include popular theatre, song and dance, fiction, painting and illustration and, from the 20th cent., film , television, comics, and board and electronic games, together with non-fictional forms such as documentary and news media, general-audience historical writing, military re-enactment, and virtual worlds. The foundational, pre-industrial, pagan, heroic, and mythopoetic...

Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
5,311 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Tacitus’ generally more sympathetic approach—an interpretation presumably influenced by Tacitus’ reliance on the historian Fabius Rusticus, Seneca's protégé. Within the approach taken below, Seneca's philosophical writings both before and after his virtual retirement represent a form of spiritual emancipation from his direct and (after 62 ) his indirect involvement in the Neronian court. Yet beyond their localized, Neronian significance, Seneca's writings mark an important stage in the evolution of Latin philosophical prose as an original literary phenomenon...

Military Structure and Organization, Roman

Military Structure and Organization, Roman   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
8,903 words
Illustration(s):
2

...favor of regional armies, and the legion as a structure became so melded with former auxiliary units that the actual title became virtually irrelevant. As the Eastern and Western governments went their separate ways in the course of the fifth century, the armies of East and West played significant roles in defining the paths that their respective regions took. Army commanders were now career soldiers with no experience in civilian administration. More important, however, in the course of the fifth century, chronic disorganization and factionalism made the...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
90,898 words
Illustration(s):
41

...and the Forum Romanum was so popular a site for statuary dedications that it had to be periodically cleared of its bronze and marble sculptural accumulation. Roman free-standing sculpture falls into two broad typological categories: portraits of actual persons and idealized figures. The latter category includes divinities, personifications, mythological characters and animals. Both categories served various purposes for their owners and dedicators; the Romans commissioned free-standing images as Cult statues , votives, honorific and funerary monuments and...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...rooms attached to these tholoi functioned as ossuaries, storerooms for grave goods and ritual areas associated with funerary cult. Other em tomb types include rock-cut tombs, cave burials and cemeteries of rectangular stone ‘house tombs’, such as that at Mochlos . The construction of these house tombs resembles that of actual houses, and some were given similar architectural features: internal pillars, corridors, and on rare occasions an upper storey and plastered walls. The Chrysolakkos tomb at Mallia , dating to the Proto-Palatial period, is a...

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