You are looking at 1-20 of 70 entries  for:

  • All : actual and virtual x
  • Art & Architecture x
clear all

View:

Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,379 words

...entertainment trivia and commercial applications. To achieve its potential as an art form, Virtual Reality will necessarily explore degrees of realism and of verisimilitude. What complicates the issue is the broad spread of disciplines from which Virtual Reality draws its sustenance: Virtual Reality combines art with technology, psychology with computer science, and electrical engineering with metaphysics. Another related problem is how to bridge the gap between the great expectations raised by the Virtual Reality concept and the actual achievements of...

Computer Art

Computer Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,023 words

...like realities than representations because we can reach into them and change them. Simulation is superseding mimesis as the paradigm of representation because computers change the process of articulation from actual to virtual specification. The second main feature of computer art is its interactivity. The raison d' être of the computer is to compute, so the numbers delineating virtual existence are eminently pliable. With the right interface, one can move virtual objects in virtual space and manipulate them in myriad ways, even metamorphosing them into their...

Ecphrasis

Ecphrasis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,357 words

...in notional ecphrasis still operate in actual ones (notions of centrality and peripherality in describing an image; ways in which texts construct virtual scanning processes ad hoc only to their own occasions; the devices by which temporality, in a text's unfolding over time, is figuratively made to deal with spatiality; and so on). Then, too, the impulse to produce poetic vividness that would stand in for an absent image is in some ways not too far from constructing a sort of verbal screen between a viewer's eye and the picture or sculpture in question. W....

Cyberspace

Cyberspace   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,165 words

...From the viewpoint of phenomenology, cyberspace can mimic or resemble actual physical buildings, or it can support more dimensions than any actual physical topography. With a sufficient bandwidth of sensory stimuli, cyberspace can also generate virtual realities or fully immersive environments. As dataspace, however, cyberspace is not a universal simulator but a vast space for high-speed travel. Cyberspace is not itself a virtual reality, but it is the void in which virtual entities can appear. The image of the data highway through cyberspace has...

Lukács, György

Lukács, György (1885)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,565 words

...in the homogenization, intensive stylization, and autonomization of the everyday schemes of communication. But precisely because of this forming, the perfect work of art—an objectivization in which all the opposition between the meaning-creating form and the experienceable content, between the subjective and the objective, disappears—constitutes a self-enclosed totality that in itself is elevated above, and insulated from, the actual, always heterogeneous, and contingent experiences both of the author and of the recipient. Lukács's early aesthetics, one of...

Langer, Susanne Knauth

Langer, Susanne Knauth (1895)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,695 words

...virtual object), not diverted from it, and vice versa. One stated implication of this thesis set Langer apart from many previous aestheticians and art theorists (though it harmonized with the position of the New Critics of literary theory): that creative causes and responding effects are largely or wholly irrelevant in aesthetic theory. This is at odds as well with much present-day aesthetic (and especially literary) theory. But Langer makes an eloquent and persuasive case, and contemporary thinkers might well profit from reading or rereading it. We can and do...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,956 words
Illustration(s):
10

...appear distorted and therefore correct. It has been argued that the discovery of perspective by Brunelleschi and Alberti, together with the writings of Piero, Leonardo, and Dürer, represented a singular moment when the fine arts made an actual contribution to the history of science. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many more artists and amateurs wrote treatises on perspective. Some of the most important were Jean Cousin 's Livre de perspective ( 1560 ), Daniele Barbaro 's La pratica della perspettiva ( 1569 ), and Giacomo da Vignola 's ...

Agam, Yaacov

Agam, Yaacov (1951)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...actual movement. That said, as of 1952 he started producing compositions that were transformable by means of a pivoting mechanism. Around the same time, he also experimented with tactile compositions, where the movement is not intrinsic to the piece itself but is induced by a shift in the viewer's perspective, notably when the viewer moves parallel to works which Agam himself described as ‘polyphonic’ or ‘metapolyphonic’. Agam has explained this virtual obsession, recalling his own youthful preoccupation with the occult and with chiromancy, cabala and...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,764 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on surfaces, materials are brought and applied in order to make it seem as if forms had been placed in a virtual space. From the standpoint afforded by this framework, Western optical naturalism is a construction of virtual space as primarily metric, physical, and egocentric, that is, a construction of virtual forms in virtual light in relation to a single viewer. For the most part, Western art history and criticism have been preoccupied with the construction of virtual spaces, their problems and implications, and much less concerned with their correlative...

Comparative Aesthetics

Comparative Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,045 words

... (jñāna) of the self and reality, which knowledge enables one's creative action to become genuinely “skillful.” A virtual world is brought forth that is informed throughout with joyful insight. As with the making of worlds generally, artistic creativity becomes an illusion making that is wholly conscious of itself. The central concept in Indian aesthetics is that of rasa —“flavor” or that which is “tasted” in art. The theory allows that a number of basic life emotions can be distinguished (e.g., delight, humor, sadness, anger, fear) and that these are...

Formalism

Formalism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,841 words

...plastic structure or virtual relief has no sub- or understructure or formal skeleton around which it has been pasted and plastered and which formal analysis somehow should try to retrieve; plastic structure or virtual relief is the representationality of the work in sum and in substance. But this approach assumes that the representationality remains constant throughout its life history—in other words, that the seeing-as from which it derives and the seeing-in that it provokes has the virtual unity of the plastic structure or even the material extension...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,993 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of surface and spatial morphology, of flatness and volume as inherent to sculptural practice, Stokes and Badt establish the fundamental structure of sculpture as an interrelation between the organic (i.e., plastic) form and geometry as the ordering and regulative principle. Their position implies the equation of a work of art with an organism and the view that “life” is the telos of art, a position that also motivates Langer's “virtual kinetic volume that is created by—and with—the semblance of living form” (Langer, 1953 , p. 89). Stokes's and Badt's...

Reception Aesthetics

Reception Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,601 words

...and it may be conceived best as a potential waiting to be realized. Concretization, by contrast, refers to the product of the reader's own productive activity; it is the realization of the text in the mind of the reader, accomplished by the filling in of blanks or gaps ( Leerstellen ) to eliminate indeterminacy. Finally, the work of art is neither text nor concretization, but something in between. It occurs at the point of convergence of text and reader, a point that can never be completely defined. The work of art is characterized by its virtual nature and is...

Imagery

Imagery   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,372 words

...“reading” a picture, in a letter to his patron Chantelou: “I beg you to read both the narrative and the picture” (“Lisez l' histoire et le tableau”; Poussin, 1964 , p. 36). For the first time, an artist referred to an actual “reading” dissociated from the virtual reading of the narrative that underpins a picture. Almost a century after Poussin, the eighteenth-century philosophe and inventor of modern art criticism, Denis Diderot , both in his Salons and in his Pensées détachees sur la peinture (see especially 1957 , pensée no. 142), also described...

Bauhaus

Bauhaus   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,567 words

...among students, and the centrality of his teaching and workshop responsibilities began to rival that of the director. Itten focused exclusively on the self-discovery and empowerment of the students and eschewed the notion of art as a preliminary to the design of commodities. He had no commitment to craft training for the artist and took Gropius's desire to bring actual projects into the workshops as damaging of the quietude and harmony necessary for creative expression. For Gropius, on the other hand, this was essential for regrounding art and architecture,...

Indian Aesthetics

Indian Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,326 words
Illustration(s):
1

...human intentions, motivations, and speech contexts in fixing the intent of the text and in drawing out its implications and unstated meanings. But he makes no appeal to an actual speaker. What he appeals to are paradigms of human speech situations in which speakers intend certain meanings and express them according to the public conventions of meaning. This approach in terms of the “authorless” text has traditionally characterized all branches of textual interpretation in India, including literary criticism. The unity and determinacy of meaning constitute...

Impressionism

Impressionism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,137 words
Illustration(s):
1

...than most of these artists and by his own choice not a participant in their independent exhibitions, is often considered an Impressionist owing to his close personal and stylistic affinities with various members of the group. Similarly, Paul Cézanne occupies a place at the margins of Impressionism: while active in two of the early group exhibitions and in age quite close to Monet and Renoir, Cézanne has since frequently been treated as a member of the generation of French artists following the Impressionists owing to his virtual invisibility in the public...

Performance Art

Performance Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,630 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to arts activism, virtual reality, and sites on the World Wide Web. The overlap of performance art with issues explored by artists in related media such as dance ( Yvonne Rainer ), music (John Cage, Diamanda Galàs), film ( Valie Export , Laurie Anderson ), theater ( Robert Wilson , the Wooster Group), and comedy and cabaret ( Ann Magnussen , Reno), helps both to legitimate and confound performance art's exclusion from the museum and the art-historical canon. By its very nature, performance art subverts the function of the museum and art history to...

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality   Reference library

Michael Heim

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,469 words

...potential as an art form, virtual reality will necessarily explore degrees of realism and of verisimilitude. What complicates the issue is the broad spread of disciplines from which virtual reality draws its sustenance: virtual reality combines art with technology, psychology with computer science, and electrical engineering with metaphysics. Another related problem is how to bridge the gap between the great expectations raised by the virtual reality concept and the actual achievements of research. The most widely available virtual reality systems in the early...

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality   Reference library

Horea Avram

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,317 words
Illustration(s):
1

...projects, the work is concerned with immersivity, depth of field, and the “perfect” illusion: the virtual objects are rendered tridimensionally, image’s flatness is replaced by profoundness, and immersion substitutes arm’s-length visual experience. The viewer seems to be literally inside the convergent space, among the objects and images (real and virtual), and not in a detached, “cinematic” mode of perception. Another type of AR use is projective solutions (through spatial displays): the actual site of the work is used as a projection surface, therefore...

View: