View:

Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

...Stryker, 2006 , p. 7; Valentine, 2007 , p. 24). The reasons behind the relative success, establishment, institutionalization, and entrenchment of queer theory and queer studies relative to the “newness” of transgender theory and transgender studies in academic settings need to be interrogated. Transgender Studies. The publication of The Transgender Studies Reader , edited by Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle, in 2006 marks an important step toward the establishment and institutionalization of transgender studies in academic settings. The compilation’s...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

Deborah F. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,164 words

...embryonic theory of gender production implicit in Beauvoir’s words. Wittig’s critique of a masculinized culture is profound, positing that heterosexuality orders all human relations and controls how we conceptualize the world. The ultimate means of political resistance is the establishment of a lesbian culture. A lesbian is not a woman, Wittig argues, whether economically, or politically, or ideologically. A woman exists only in a specific social relation to a man, and that relationship, according to Wittig, is one of servitude. Only a lesbian can be a female...

Mujerista Criticism

Mujerista Criticism   Reference library

Leticia Guardiola-Saenz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,558 words

...Particular biblical and theological presuppositions undergird mujerista criticism. First, the God of the Gospels is understood to have a preferential option for the poor and the marginalized. Second, the main message that Jesus preaches in the Gospels is understood as the establishment of the Kin-dom of God, where the hungry are fed, the homeless receive shelter, and the naked are clothed. This focus on kin-dom rather than king-dom is central to mujerista understanding. While during the first-century Jewish world the metaphor of kingdom was probably the...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Claudia Setzer, Susanne Scholz, and Surekha Nelavala

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
14,515 words

...feminism in the United States is typically defined as the period from the Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848 to the establishment of women’s voting rights in 1920 . Women’s rights, however, arose within a broad international network of relationships that accelerated in the nineteenth century, aided by increased travel, wider distribution of books and magazines, the establishment of telegraph links, reform movements like abolitionism that spanned the Atlantic, and Catholic and Protestant missionary and revival movements. ...

Historical-Critical Approaches

Historical-Critical Approaches   Reference library

Davina C. Lopez and Todd Penner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,251 words

...a radical and liberating perspective for the women of Stanton’s time, using then-contemporary developments in historical understandings of biblical literature to do so. The Woman’s Bible was controversial upon its publication, endured challenges from the mainstream religious establishment as well as from feminist colleagues, and was certainly not the only attempt to apply feminist consciousness to the “new” historical criticism of the Bible ( Calvert-Koyzis and Weir, 2010 ). However, its legacy for feminist and gender-critical appropriations of...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...leadership. On the one hand, there was the priestly leadership that oversaw the Jewish sacrificial rituals, first all over the country and later in the Jerusalem Temple. This leadership claimed its descent from Aaron the brother of Moses and represented the religious establishment in Israel and then in Judah. The priests, according to the Bible, received their authority from their descent: one could not become but was born a priest. In the Bible, the priesthood is a male office, and the Temple was rarely visited by women. Whether this picture is...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...their marriages served to cement strategic alliances. However, whereas the Neo-Assyrians married foreign kings, the Neo-Babylonian kings used their daughters to solidify internal alliances, perhaps because of the relative turbulence of the Neo-Babylonian period. The establishment of Nabonidus’s daughter as the ēntu of Ur can be seen as part of the same trend. Neo-Assyrian Queens and Mothers of Kings. The Neo-Assyrian Empire was led by the king, the vice regent of the national god Aššur. Ideologically at least, all political power flowed from the king...

Popular Religion and Magic

Popular Religion and Magic   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Ann Jeffers, Pauline Hanesworth, Nicola Denzey Lewis, Jared C. Calaway, Mika Ahuvia, and Justin Marc Lasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,199 words

...human beings ( āšipūtu ). The official cult was meant to benefit the community as a whole and involved both passive and active public participation on festival days but did not extend to life-cycle rites, which were not matters of public performance. The official priestly establishment kept the divinity localized in his shrine or temple and generally in a good mood, allowing the great gods of the pantheon to serve as enforcers for legitimate private magical rites. Private rites served a wide variety of human needs, including healing from illness; avoiding...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

...was constantly evolving, with new gods or goddesses being discovered or transformed while old cults were never put aside, resulting in a very rich religious environment. The word “cult” has negative modern connotations, but it remains the best term to describe discrete ritual establishments. A cult is a particular liturgy devoted to the divinity that inheres in a particular object or place, and it may be practiced by one member or by thousands. For the most part, any participant in a particular cult may also participate in any number of others. The gods, heroes,...

Education

Education   Reference library

Heather D. D. Parker, Erin E. Fleming, Timothy J. Sandoval, Daniele Pevarello, Michele Kennerly, Pheme Perkins, Sarit Kattan Gribetz, and Lillian I. Larsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
28,684 words

...amid the busy duties of running a Roman household, Jerome likewise advocates a geographical shift. Removing the locus of instruction from its urban household setting, he urges Laeta to send young Paula to Bethlehem, to be educated in her grandmother’s monastery. Here, in an establishment organized and administered by two aristocratic women (the elder Paula and her sister, Eustochium), Jerome offers his services as tutor. As Paula’s ideal instructor, a man of “approved years, life, and learning,” he likens his proposed role to that of Aristotle teaching...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...continue to support the first one and keep her in his household for as long as she lives. LL 28 provides a similar safeguard for first wife who has become blind or paralyzed. Marriages could be terminated by the death of one of the spouses, desertion, and divorce. Just as the establishment of marriage was a legal proceeding, divorce required the legal dissolution of contractual agreements. The husband possessed the right to initiate divorce on any grounds. Declaring a formulaic statement, “you are/she is not my wife,” effectively dissolved the marriage. Some...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...a woman of priestly family ( m. Bik. 1:5), since a female slave would be suspected of sexual promiscuity ( t. Hor . 2:11). The treatment of slaves typifies how sex can be used as a means of class distinctions, drawing upon Greco-Roman practice where the Bible is silent. The establishment of Augustan mores in the first century probably had some effect, but in similar fashion to Christian households we must assume a dual morality in which the exploitation of sex slaves contravened the ethics of the household (cf. Glancy, 2011 , pp. 133–152). While...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...(Ulpian, Digest 3.1.1.5–6). Such men received severe restrictions to their civic rights but were not, it should be stressed, hunted down for punishment or considered criminals if penalized. It is apparently only in 559 c.e. that Christian principles contribute to the establishment of the death penalty for any male involved in same-sex relations, regardless of whether he played the insertive or the receptive role (Justinian, Novels 141). For every law there are always exceptions, and in Roman history that would normally be the emperor. Allegations of...

Family Structures

Family Structures   Reference library

Laurie E. Pearce, Jon L. Berquist, Richard Hawley, Judith P. Hallett, Katherine A. Shaner, Shulamit Valler, and Helen Rhee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,740 words

...maternal authority. For example, Emmelia, who bore nine children, including Macrina (the Younger), Basil the Great, and Gregory of Nyssa and outlived her husband by about thirty years, raised her children (with the help of wet nurses and Macrina), ensured their education and establishment in life, and shaped religious life and devotion at home. Her matriarchal role further included administering the family’s considerable possessions as she paid taxes in three different provinces, distributing them among her numerous children, and finally blessing each of her...

Children

Children   Reference library

Erin E. Fleming, Jennifer L. Koosed, Pierre Brulé, Christian Laes, Chris Frilingos, Karina Martin Hogan, John W. Martens, and Melvin G. Miller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
25,560 words

...is for women to be betrothed by the age of twelve and married in their early teens, and for men to marry by the age of twenty ( b. Qidd. 29b). There were economic and cultural reasons for this difference. The Greco-Roman culture of the Mediterranean viewed marriage as the establishment of a new household with the goal of procreation, seen as a social good, and Palestinian Jewish sources share that ideology. The lower economic status of Jews in the Mediterranean world, which made it hard for young men to establish a household before they inherited property...

Fatima bint Mubarak, Sheikha

Fatima bint Mubarak, Sheikha (bce 1940)   Reference library

Wanda Krause

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
627 words

...its federation in 1971 and, previously, ruler of the Eastern Region of Abu Dhabi. Sheikha Fatima played a pivotal role in supporting her husband during unification and the establishment of basic infrastructure for the country. As first lady, she is referred to as the mother of the nation. She has also played a pioneering role in women's development in the UAE. Since the establishment of the General Women's Union in 1975 , Sheikha Fatima has chaired the umbrella women's organization. She is also chairperson of the Family Development Foundation. Her...

Gender Advisory Board, United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development

Gender Advisory Board, United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development   Reference library

Dominic T. Bocci

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
488 words

...three overlapping realms of science and technology, sustainable human development, and gender and identified seven key transformative action areas, including, among others, gender equity in science and technology education and relating better with local knowledge systems. The establishment of an advisory board was to help ensure the report's implementation throughout the United Nations system. ESOSOC ratified the GWG's recommendations and the GAB was formally established in 1995 . From its initiation, the GAB consisted of members from seven countries, including...

Esack, Farid

Esack, Farid (b. 1959)   Reference library

Eren Tatari

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
510 words

...against apartheid comes from his own background of having been relocated to a different neighborhood under the Group Areas Act (acts under the parliament of South Africa that assigned racial groups to separate residential and business sectors). His activism also led to the establishment of Positive Muslims, an organization that works with HIV positive Muslims in South Africa. His scholarly talent was recognized from a young age. He joined the Tablīghī Jamāʿat—a staunchly pious international brotherhood—when he was nine years old. A year later he was teaching...

International League of Muslim Women

International League of Muslim Women   Reference library

Natana J. DeLong-Bas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
600 words

...to address a variety of needs within the local African American Muslim community that resonated with populations elsewhere. Funds were initially raised to provide food, clothing, shelter, and money for needy individuals, families, and groups. Activities then expanded to the establishment and maintenance of the Muslim Pioneer House (a home for senior citizens), a nonprofit resale shop (which solicits and accepts donations of gently used items for resale at discounted prices), and the An-Nisa House (a shelter for battered women). The League also established a...

Medical Profession, Women in the

Medical Profession, Women in the   Reference library

Miri Shefer-Mossensohn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,282 words

...hospitals of a new type were opened, and new public health measures, such as vaccinations, quarantines, and forensic medicine, were implemented. Female practitioners were part of these reforms. They assumed new responsibilities and occupied a more central role in the medical establishment. Egypt, on which much research regarding women, medicine, and health has been carried out in comparison to other areas within the Middle East–North Africa region, witnessed the first school of midwives in 1832 in Cairo. The school offered a six-year curriculum, which focused...

View: