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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

establishment

establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The successful growth and reproduction of plants and/or animals in a site that provides them with favourable...

municipal sewage

municipal sewage   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...sewage Sewage that originates from households, commercial establishments, and...

colonization

colonization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...1. The establishment of a new colony . 2. The arrival and establishment of plants and animals on a new area of land. See also island biogeography ; succession...

municipal discharge

municipal discharge   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...discharge The discharge of effluent from wastewater treatment plants which receive wastewater from households, commercial establishments, and...

community forestry

community forestry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...forestry An approach to forestry management that includes local people and takes their needs into account. It includes the establishment of village woodlots, farm forestry , tree planting in private fields, and joint management of forests by communities and governments. See also social forestry...

International Geophysical Year

International Geophysical Year   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...1958 , during which an extensive, international programme of geophysical observations was carried out over all parts of the globe. The period was chosen to coincide with a sunspot maximum. Apart from the wide degree of international cooperation, it was notable for the establishment of various scientific stations in Antarctica, and the launch of the first artificial...

RAPID

RAPID   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...and nature of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation , primarily to assess its significance in determining the climate of northern Europe. Because of the importance of oceanic heat transport between latitudes 25–35° N, a major feature of the programme is the establishment of a series of moorings across the Atlantic at 26.5° N to determine factors such as temperature, salinity, pressure, and currents. These provide continuous monitoring of the transatlantic pressure gradient. In addition, the voltages induced on submarine cables across the...

sewage

sewage   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...The organic waste and wastewater that is produced by residential and commercial establishments, and is discharged into sewers...

close management measure

close management measure   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...management measure Any technique that is used to aid the reintroduction and establishment of viable populations of a species into its natural habitat , such as artificial nesting...

regeneration cut

regeneration cut   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...cut In forest management , a cutting strategy in which old trees are removed while favourable environmental conditions are maintained in order to promote and enhance the natural establishment of new...

secondary succession

secondary succession   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...succession The re‐establishment of vegetation on land that has had a vegetation cover at some time in the past but which might have been destroyed by natural processes (including lightning fires, severe storms , and volcanic eruptions ) or by human interference (including forest clearance , building construction, and fires). Contrast primary succession . See also succession...

strip development

strip development   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...development A sprawling form of commercial land use in which each establishment is given direct access to a major thoroughfare, which usually has many large signs designed to attract passers‐by. Visitors drive to and from the strip, which therefore requires extensive parking...

European Community

European Community   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Community ( EC ) A regional organization created by the Treaty of Rome ( 1957 ), which provided for the gradual elimination of customs duties and other interregional trade barriers between member states in Europe. In 1993 , with establishment of the European Union ( EU ), the EC became the customs union component of the...

blocking

blocking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...In synoptic meteorology , the establishment in the mid-latitudes of a high-pressure system that interrupts or diverts for a considerable period the typically eastward movement of depressions and other synoptic features in the zonal flow. Over western Europe, for example, blocking often forces depressions to move northwards towards Scandinavia or southwards over southern France and...

Resource Reserve

Resource Reserve   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Reserve An IUCN Management Category (VI) for protected areas , which is designed ‘to protect resources of the area for future use and prevent or contain development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of objectives that are based upon appropriate knowledge and...

succession

succession   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...replaces another through a predictable series of stages ( seres ), until a stable climax is established. The sequence normally involves five stages, beginning with creation of an area of bare land ( nudation ), followed by the arrival of the first plant seeds ( migration ), establishment of the seeds and growth of the plants ( ecesis ), competition between the established plants, and their effects on the local environment ( reaction ), until the populations of species eventually reach an equilibrium condition, in balance with the surrounding environment, which...

National Park

National Park   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...where the highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate as soon as possible exploitation or occupation in the whole area and to enforce effectively the respect of ecological, geomorphological, or aesthetic features which have led to its establishment; and (c) where visitors are allowed to enter, under special conditions, for inspirational, cultural, and recreative purposes’. British national parks do not comply strictly with the IUCN definition because they comprise areas that have been altered significantly over long...

list of national parks

list of national parks   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...of national parks ( Note: In some cases the year of establishment is not known or the park still awaits formal designation. In others two years are given; the first refers to the initial establishment, the second to the year the park was expanded.) Continent Country National Park Area (km 2 ) Established Africa Algeria Ahaggar 3800 1987 Belezma 262.5 1984 Chréa 260 1985 Djurdjura 82.25 1983 El Kala 800 1993 Gouraya 20.8 1984 Taza 3807 1923 Theniet El Had 36.16 1983 Tiemcen 82.25 1993 Angola Bicauri 7900 1964 Cameia 1445 1938 Cangandala 600 1970 Iona 15 200...

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