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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

plant recruitment

plant recruitment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...recruitment The establishment of new seedlings and small...

inverted U

inverted U   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...U A particular shape of a line on a graph, such as on income equality with per capita income; see Kuznets (1955) Am. Econ. Rev. 45 . Grote (2008) J. Econ. Geog. 8, 2 finds an inverted U in the establishment of foreign banks in...

sand dune stabilization

sand dune stabilization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...dune stabilization Techniques designed to prevent the erosion and deposition of sand include: the establishment of shelterbelts; mass tree revegetation using a synthetic water absorbing polymer; developing live hedges; and mechanical fencing. Shelterbelts were the most effective; mechanical fencing the least ( Raji et al. (2004) Env. Model. & Assess. 99, 1–3 ). Schwendiman (1997) Int. J. Biomet. 21 describes the three-stage approach in temperate climates, and Gadgil and Ede (1999) Land Deg. & Dev. 9, 2 outline sand dune stabilization methods...

invasion

invasion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...The establishment of species in ecosystems they are not native to; see, for example, Russell-Smith et al. (2004) J. Biogeog. 31, 8 on the invasion of rain forest into eucalyptus woodland in Australia. Campbell et al. (2002) J. Biogeog. 29, 4 outline a methodology which might be able to be used to predict invasions by alien plant species. ‘Humans cause invasions, humans perceive invasions, and humans must decide whether, when, where and how to manage invasions’ ( Richardson et al. (2008) PHG 32, 2...

military-industrial complex

military-industrial complex   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...complex In a nation, those industries that provide materiel for the military, together with the military establishment itself. As defined by M. L. Stackhouse (1971) with reference to the USA, ‘a specific set of impersonal, interlocking institutional structures, rooted in the history of urban industrial society and in the specific conflicts in America’s emergence as a world power. It is governed by generalized value patterns that transcend ordinary political ideology; it is undergirded by a matrix of personal, contractual, and fiscal...

Bretton Woods

Bretton Woods   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...Woods A shorthand for the system of international finance created in 1944 with the establishment of the International Monetary Fund , the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( World Bank ), and the creation of a system of fixed exchange rates. This system lasted until 1971, when it gave way to floating exchange rates. In 2007, the World Economic Forum and the Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee ( RBWC ) made specific proposals for improvements in the exchange rate system that could help to prevent large, persistent economic imbalances...

riparian

riparian   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...topic, see Hill in J. Jones and P. Mulholland, eds (2000). Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by allogenic hydrogeomorphological factors, with autogenic (plant-induced) influences affecting both plant dynamics and the river environment from the earliest stages of plant establishment, and becoming more important as landform stability is achieved ( Francis (2006) Area 38, 4...

border

border   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...A boundary line established by a state, or a region, to define its spatial extent—‘central multi-scalar nodes where power, place and identity intersect’ ( Kaiser and Nikiforova (2006) Ethnic & Racial Studs 29, 5 ). The establishment and maintenance of borders are crucial to the integrity of the modern state. States use a variety of mechanisms to enforce their borders, including checking travel documents, limiting border crossings to select travellers, and in some cases, building obstacles to prohibit unauthorized crossings. While in the European Union...

biological invasion

biological invasion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...invasion The establishment of species in ecosystems to which they are not native. Invasive species cause significant ecological harm: they can alter ecosystem processes, act as vectors of disease, and reduce biodiversity. Worldwide, out of 256 vertebrate extinctions with an identifiable cause, 109 are known to be due to biological invaders ( Olsen and Santanou (2002) Am. J. Agric. Econ. 84, 5 ). Simberloff and Alexander (in P. Calow, ed. 1998) estimate that around a quarter of the value of US agricultural output is lost to non-indigenous plant...

National Park

National Park   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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2015

...sites of particular scenic or scientific interest, and protected by a national authority. ‘Geography, and our identification with it, give us a sense of place. Geography also affects our national identity, and for many National Parks is the fundamental reason for their establishment as parks’ (United States National Parks Authority). There may be conflicts between the conservation of the natural environment and public access; ‘where this happens, priority must be given to the conservation of natural beauty’ (Lord Sandford 1974). Imrie and Edwards ...

conservation

conservation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...access to key natural resources; and Sundberg (2003) Pol. Geog. 22, 7 observes that the existence of democratic regimes and formal institutions does not guarantee that environmental projects will be implemented through demographic processes. C. Hambler ( 2004 ) favours establishment of an environmental fund into which polluters pay and from which societies can draw, such that those whose development opportunities are curtailed for global conservation objectives can access compensatory development funds. See Vogiatzakis et al. (2006) PPG 30 on using ...

alcohol, geographies of

alcohol, geographies of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...outside mealtimes; and a southern wet area, where wine is the main beverage, usually drunk at meals. Subsequently, European alcohol choices have started to converge ( Allamani et al. (2000) Substance Abuse 21, 4 ). P. Chatterton and R. Hollands ( 2003 ) see alcohol-related establishments as the driving force in recent city-centre regeneration; Roberts (2006) Cities 23 reports that cities at night now attract vast numbers of people. See also D. Hobbs et al. ( 2003 ). However, Roberts et al. (2006) Urb. Studs 43, 7 conclude that British free market...

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