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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

plant recruitment

plant recruitment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...recruitment The establishment of new seedlings and small...

colonization

colonization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The successful establishment of an invading species in a habitat...

beat up

beat up   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...up A foresters’ phrase meaning to replace dead trees with new ones, especially during the early years of the establishment or re-establishment of a...

restoration ecology

restoration ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...ecology The establishment on a disturbed site of the plant and animal community which existed there prior to the disturbance. Compare rehabilitation ecology ; replacement ecology...

replacement ecology

replacement ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...ecology Where it is impossible to restore a site to its original condition, the establishment on it of a community entirely different from the original. Compare rehabilitation ecology ; restoration ecology...

afforestation

afforestation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...1 The establishment of forest by natural succession or by the planting of trees on land where they did not grow formerly. 2 Historically, the act of defining an area of land that henceforth would become subject to forest ...

reforestation

reforestation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( reafforestation ) 1 The establishment of a particular type of woodland by planting into an existing, different woodland type. 2 The replacement of a tree crop by natural or artificial means on land from which a previous wood has been...

rehabilitation ecology

rehabilitation ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...ecology Where it is impossible to restore a site to its original condition, the establishment on it of a community which is similar to the original. Compare replacement ecology ; restoration ecology ; see also recreatability...

inverted U

inverted U   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...U A particular shape of a line on a graph, such as on income equality with per capita income; see Kuznets (1955) Am. Econ. Rev. 45 . Grote (2008) J. Econ. Geog. 8, 2 finds an inverted U in the establishment of foreign banks in...

territoriality

territoriality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...The establishment, demarcation, and defence of an area by animals, normally during mating ritual. Once territory has been established the animals can exist without disturbance and with sufficient food for the offspring. Evidence shows that among territorial species individuals without a territory rarely...

Juday, Chancey

Juday, Chancey (1871–1944)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Chancey ( 1871–1944 ) An American biologist who was a pioneer in the establishment of the science of limnology , through his studies of lakes in Wisconsin and of Lake Mendota in particular, made with his colleague Edward A. Birge . From 1931 until his retirement in 1941 Juday was professor of limnology at the University of...

‘burst of monsoon’

‘burst of monsoon’   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The abrupt onset of a marked change in weather conditions in the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia, associated with the arrival of humid south-westerly winds which displace the hot, dry, pre-monsoon regime. The changed surface-level wind pattern is related to the establishment of a high-level easterly jet stream...

blocking

blocking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...In synoptic meteorology , the establishment in the mid-latitudes of a high-pressure system that interrupts or diverts for a considerable period the typically eastward movement of depressions and other synoptic features in the zonal flow . Over western Europe, for example, blocking often forces depressions to move northward towards Scandinavia or southward over southern France and...

sand dune stabilization

sand dune stabilization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...dune stabilization Techniques designed to prevent the erosion and deposition of sand include: the establishment of shelterbelts; mass tree revegetation using a synthetic water absorbing polymer; developing live hedges; and mechanical fencing. Shelterbelts were the most effective; mechanical fencing the least ( Raji et al. (2004) Env. Model. & Assess. 99, 1–3 ). Schwendiman (1997) Int. J. Biomet. 21 describes the three-stage approach in temperate climates, and Gadgil and Ede (1999) Land Deg. & Dev. 9, 2 outline sand dune stabilization methods...

invasion

invasion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...The establishment of species in ecosystems they are not native to; see, for example, Russell-Smith et al. (2004) J. Biogeog. 31, 8 on the invasion of rain forest into eucalyptus woodland in Australia. Campbell et al. (2002) J. Biogeog. 29, 4 outline a methodology which might be able to be used to predict invasions by alien plant species. ‘Humans cause invasions, humans perceive invasions, and humans must decide whether, when, where and how to manage invasions’ ( Richardson et al. (2008) PHG 32, 2...

germ plasm bank

germ plasm bank   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...plasm bank An establishment concerned primarily with the conservation of hereditary genetic material which may be lost through the process of genetic erosion . Germ plasm loss is a major concern in Asia, parts of Africa, southern Europe, and countries bordering the Mediterranean, where antiquated cultivars are rapidly replaced by new varieties. With the loss of older cultivars, qualities possessed by them may be lost permanently, and so cannot become incorporated in new varieties. Gene banks are an important source of germ...

genetic resources

genetic resources   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of domesticated cultivars and their ancestors, in order to maintain a wide genetic base. The wider the genetic base, the greater the capacity for adaptation to particular environmental conditions (e.g. a pathogenic presence, see pathogen ). This has led to the establishment of gene banks . Compare genetic erosion...

regeneration niche

regeneration niche   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...niche The specific niche that must exist in order for a plant to become re-established in an area it formerly occupied. A plant that can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions when mature may nevertheless require very specific conditions for the germination and establishment of its seeds. For example, the Californian redwoods require burned soil and many grassland plants need disturbed, bare microsites for their...

military-industrial complex

military-industrial complex   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...complex In a nation, those industries that provide materiel for the military, together with the military establishment itself. As defined by M. L. Stackhouse (1971) with reference to the USA, ‘a specific set of impersonal, interlocking institutional structures, rooted in the history of urban industrial society and in the specific conflicts in America’s emergence as a world power. It is governed by generalized value patterns that transcend ordinary political ideology; it is undergirded by a matrix of personal, contractual, and fiscal...

Bretton Woods

Bretton Woods   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Woods A shorthand for the system of international finance created in 1944 with the establishment of the International Monetary Fund , the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( World Bank ), and the creation of a system of fixed exchange rates. This system lasted until 1971, when it gave way to floating exchange rates. In 2007, the World Economic Forum and the Reinventing Bretton Woods Committee ( RBWC ) made specific proposals for improvements in the exchange rate system that could help to prevent large, persistent economic imbalances...

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