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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Paper

Paper   Reference library

Ayad Al-Qazzaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
973 words

...the Chinese in the battle of Talas in 751, the Muslims learned about papermaking from the local people of the conquered area. The Muslims saw the value of paper and adopted and encouraged its production in their land. A turning point in papermaking in the Muslim world was the establishment of paper mills in the second half of the eighth century in Baghdad, the capital of the ʿAbbāsid Empire. By the ninth century papermaking was a flourishing industry. Al-Warrāqīn (stationery) Street became a fixture in Baghdad, with more than one hundred shops selling paper and...

Primary Schools

Primary Schools   Reference library

Suphan Kirmizialtin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
838 words

...to the first decades of the nineteenth century, and the “reform era” that began in the early nineteenth century and continued into the second half of the twentieth century. During the classical period, primary education was considered to be within the realm of the religious establishment, and the instruction at the traditional primary schools focused on teaching younger children Qurʾān recitation and basic Islamic practice. In a process that started in the early nineteenth century and gained momentum after World War I, many Islamic states initiated educational...

Trigonometry

Trigonometry   Reference library

Glen Van Brummelen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
489 words

...alternate statements, such as the Rule of Four Quantities, that were easier to apply to problems in spherical astronomy. An account of the early eleventh-century transformation in spherical trigonometry by al-Bīrūnī, the Kitāb Maqālīd ʿilm al-Hayʾa , was a major step in the establishment of trigonometry as a discipline worthy of study on its own, separate from its usefulness in mathematical astronomy. By the time of Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī’s large trigonometric treatise Kitāb al-Shakl al-Qattāʾ in the thirteenth century, it had transformed into an independent...

Madrasas

Madrasas   Reference library

Mona Abaza and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,696 words

...much of the knowledge and teachings that were endowed upon students. In Muslim India the madāris were establishments of higher learning that produced civil servants and judicial officials. One of the most important events in terms of the revival of the madrasa during the latter part of the nineteenth century was the founding of the Deoband school by Rashid Ahmad and Muhammad Qasim in 1867 in British India. This led to the establishment of many madāris modeled on Deoband. Deoband itself remained a center for Islamic studies. Its madrasa was...

Aesthetic Theory

Aesthetic Theory   Reference library

Walter B. Denny and Oliver Leaman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,335 words

...space. At the same time, the establishment of European museums of decorative arts where Islamic works figured prominently caused Islamic artists and writers to look at their own early traditions with new respect. By the turn of the twentieth century, various movements to renew or “purify” Islamic art began to emerge in various parts of the Islamic world. In the Ottoman Empire this movement grew out of a nationalist ideology, especially in architecture, and resulted in a body of writing that sought the establishment of a true national style in...

Darülfünun, Ottoman

Darülfünun, Ottoman   Reference library

Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,119 words

...Ottomane. Later these two schools were administered by the ministries of justice (Adalet Nezareti) and public works (Nafia Nezareti), respectively. The establishment of these two new institutions with a civilian character shows the paradigm shift in Ottoman educational life and its intellectual trends, compared with the initial modern engineering and medical education affiliated with military establishments. In 1900 a fourth attempt to launch a full-fledged university (Darülfünun-i Şahane) was successful, and instruction commenced in two new schools of...

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad (1849–1905)   Reference library

Asaad Al-Saleh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,972 words

...turbulent, as Egypt was under British control and weak khedives. This situation contributed to his political activism, which is demonstrated by his support of Aḥmad ʿUrābī’s nationalist revolt ( 1879–1882 ) against the khedive and foreign influence in Egypt and its military establishment. The failure of this uprising and the British occupation of Egypt in 1882 resulted in ʿAbduh’s exile to Beirut. There, he was engaged in teaching in mosques and developing the Sultaniya School, where he was hired as an instructor of Islamic subjects and Arabic. Some of the...

Libraries in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey

Libraries in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey   Reference library

İsmail E. Erünsal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,513 words

...by a rise in the public literacy rate. However, the establishment of library collections was intended to meet the needs of madrasah students, and the spread of the libraries to regions far from the center was influenced by the spread of madrasah education. The most significant development in the history of Ottoman libraries came with the establishment of the first independent library in Istanbul by Köprülü Fazil Ahmed Pasha in 1678 . This library, which was the forerunner of many similar establishments, had its own building, staff, and budget. Of the...

Ibn al-Rāwandī

Ibn al-Rāwandī   Reference library

Mehmet Karabela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,231 words

...tries to demonstrate the implausibility of prophecy, specifically the prophecy of Muḥammad. In Al-Intiṣār wa’l-Rad ‘alā al-Rāwandī al-Mulḥid , a defense of Muʿtazilism, al-Khayyāṭ (d. 912 ) describes the beliefs espoused by Ibn al-Rāwandī’s writings in four categories: the establishment of his heresies, the negation of God’s unity, the denial of prophecy, and finally, the denigration of the prophets. According to those fragments, Ibn al-Rāwandī mainly questioned the existence of miracles and argued that all prophets were liars and magicians who performed...

Ismāʿīlī Philosophy

Ismāʿīlī Philosophy   Reference library

Parviz Morewedge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,099 words

...Muslims who after the death of the sixth imam, Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq ( 702–765 ), chose his older son Ismāʿīl ( 721–775 ) as the seventh imam, rather than the younger son, Mūsā al-Kāẓim ( 745–799 ). The Ismāʿīlīs gradually began to grow in political power, especially after the establishment of the Fāṭimid dynasty in Egypt ( 909–1171 ). In addition, Ismāʿīlī communities in various places became fertile ground for creative, sophisticated, and complex philosophical theories. As Heinz Halm states, “Far from being a rigid dogmatic system, Ismaili thought manifested a...

Observatories

Observatories   Reference library

Yavuz Unat and Salim Ayduz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,408 words

...had been prepared in the past by the Indian-Persians and the Greeks with current observations made by Muslim astronomers. The desire to begin systematic—and accurate—astronomical data collection led naturally to the need for observatories. The most important reason for the establishment of observatories was the increasing size of the instruments required for observation and thus the need to house them. Although Islamic observatories were mostly founded by rulers, they were not considered permanent institutions and for the most part were short-lived. Rather...

Atom and Atomism

Atom and Atomism   Reference library

Alnoor Dhanani

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,851 words

...to such concerns, a reformulation of atomism was taken up at the beginning of the tenth century by the Muʿtazilī theologians Abū ʿAlī al-Jubbā ʾ ī (d. 915 ) and his son Abū Hāshim al-Jubbāʾī (d. 933 ). This resulted in the systemization of the early kalām atomism and the establishment of “classical” kalām atomism. The atom was now characterized as “space-occupying” ( mutaḥayyiz ), an attribute predicated also of bodies. Hence atoms, like bodies, fill space, measure space, and form larger entities by combining. The notion that space may be empty or void or...

Ibn Bājjah

Ibn Bājjah (1070–1139)   Reference library

Emilia Calvo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,663 words

...contempt. His works reveal highly original thought, an uncommon intelligence, and a broad knowledge of Aristotelian philosophy. Nevertheless, it is easy to understand why some of his thinking would have given rise to opposition from the traditional religious and philosophical establishment. In fact, his innovative thought frequently led his contemporaries to accuse him of heterodoxy. According to Ibn al-Imām, Ibn Ṭufayl ( d. 1185 ), and Ibn Bājjah himself, these issues prevented him from completing many of his works; indeed, some that still survive seem to be...

Education

Education   Reference library

Nimat Hafez Barazangi, Donald Malcolm Reid, Dietrich Reetz, Akbar S. Ahmed, Celene Ayat Lizzio, and Shenila S. Khoja-Moolji

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,601 words

...…” ( 96:1–5 ). Hence, the imperative to learn and teach has taken on an array of forms, private and public, informal and institutional, religious and otherwise, across Muslim societies past and present. This entry traces major themes and developments in education and the establishment of institutions of knowledge transmission in Muslim societies. Themes and trends covered are those that greatly influenced trajectories of knowledge acquisition and dissemination. We consider the efforts of the early Muslims communities to learn and transmit religious texts as...

Science

Science   Reference library

Julio Samsó, Carimo Mohomed, and Diego Melo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
7,075 words

...by M. Tayyib Bakhsh Budayūni. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1983. Carimo Mohomed Ottoman World Ottoman science was built on the legacy of the Seljuk dynasty (eleventh through thirteenth centuries). Under the Seljuk domain, a series of educational and scientific establishments were founded in the cities of the Anatolian peninsula. However, this was not the only cause of scientific progress. The Ottomans benefited from a long tradition that came from other cultural institutions in the Islamic world, including, for example, those of Egypt, Syria,...

Institutions of Science Education

Institutions of Science Education   Reference library

Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and Marco Demichelis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
8,676 words

...of learning, as George Makdisi notes in his study of the madrasah ’s historical development ( 1981 ). The madrasah , which he refers to as a “college,” was exclusively devoted to the teaching of religious sciences, whereas secular scientific subjects were studied in private establishments. Aydın Sayılı adopts Goldziher’s supposition that Muslim theologians valued only those branches of learning that grew directly from their religion ( Sayılı 1941 ). Other sciences (e.g., the sciences of the ancients) that had their origins in foreign sources were regarded...

Political Science

Political Science   Reference library

Ovamir Anjum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,340 words

...the very set of specific problems pertaining to governance, statecraft, policymaking, stability, transfer of power, and other conventional concerns of political science. Here, political science does not have the same meaning that scholars came to apply following the establishment of modern political science departments in the nineteenth-century United States and post–World War II Europe, a distinct field of inquiry with a recognized curriculum and professional communities distinct from those of philosophy, ethics, and theology. Rather, “political...

Tehran, School of

Tehran, School of   Reference library

Ahab Bdaiwi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,217 words

...Mudarris Ṭihrānī (sometimes known as Zunūzī) ( d. 1889 ), Āqā Muḥammad Riḍā Qumshāʾī ( d. 1888 ), Mīrzā Abu l-Ḥasan Jilwa, and Mīrzā Ḥasan Sabzavārī (date of death unknown). Philosophy in Persia did not come to an end after the Afghan invasion of Isfahan in 1722 . After the establishment of the Qājār dynasty in 1796 , Tehran was chosen as the new capital of Persia and soon thereafter mosques and madāris began to be built, which concomitantly attracted religious scholars to the city. As a result Tehran rose to prominence as an intellectual hub where...

Bayt al-Ḥikmah

Bayt al-Ḥikmah   Reference library

Jonathan Lyons

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,493 words

...religious, and social differences from the European forerunner of today’s “modern” science. It also provides a seemingly plausible explanation for the decline of that same tradition by linking it with the historical collapse of the Bayt al-Ḥikmah and of other, similar establishments. Today, the Bayt al-Ḥikmah survives as a powerful symbol, particularly in the Muslim world, of great achievement in science, philosophy, and learning in general, and of the fundamental contributions made by Arab and Muslim scholars to world civilization. Web sites and other...

Alchemy

Alchemy   Reference library

Syed Nomanul Haq, Massimo Campanini, and Mauro Valdinoci

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,344 words

...philosophers, such as Pythagoras, Archelaus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Porphyry, and Galen, were quoted as alchemists by Arabic sources. The first known alchemist in Egypt is Bolus of Mendes, who lived during the second century bce and played a significant role in the establishment of alchemy, enriching Egyptian techniques with philosophical principles. Around the first and second centuries ce , the Greek texts attributed to Hermes and known as Hermetica were composed in Egypt. Apollonius of Tyana (in Arabic, Balīnūs), a Neo-Pythagorean philosopher of...

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